Can CBD Help With Asperger’s Syndrome?

  • Asperger’s syndrome (AS), also called Asperger syndrome or Asperger disorder, is a form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
  • A dysfunctional endocannabinoid system (ECS) may be linked to ASD (1). CBD, which modulates the endocannabinoid system (ECS) (2), may help with ASD.  
  • A 2019 study shared in Frontiers of Pharmacology noted that CBD use in children led to significant improvements in ASD symptoms (3), such as anxiety and sleep problems. 
  • CBD may be beneficial for mental health by reducing anxiety and sleep disruptions (4). CBD’s therapeutic potential may also help improve sleep, motivating autistic children to socialize more (5).
  • However, human studies on CBD’s potential effects on ASD have several limitations due to lack of precise measuring tools for symptoms’ improvements (6).

Best CBD Oil for Asperger’s Syndrome

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Editor's Pick
  • Score breakdown
    Value
    Quality
    Strength
    Customer Service
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Effectiveness
  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
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    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
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    $/mg CBD
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    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
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Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
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    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

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    •  Pure CBD hemp
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    •  Approximately 300 drops total
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    Source
    Source of Hemp
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    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
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    Full Spectrum CBD
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    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
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    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
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    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
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    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
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Best Value

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
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    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

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    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
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    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
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    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
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    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
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    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
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    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
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Best Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tincture Natural 1500mg

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
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  • Overall Clinical Score
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    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

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    •  Various delicious flavors to choose from
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Free shipping for this particular product within USA
    •  World-class customer service team
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
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    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
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    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1500mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    50mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
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Can CBD Really Help With Asperger’s Syndrome?

Asperger syndrome (AS) or Asperger’s is a mild form of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). 

This condition is classified as a developmental disorder wherein children have difficulties making eye contact, nonverbal communication, social anxiety, and repetitive behaviors and patterns (7)

There is a lack of comprehensive study on how cannabidiol (CBD) might affect individuals with AS. However, some researchers demonstrated CBD’s promising results from studies on autistic children and young adults.

A recent study published in Frontiers of Pharmacology mentioned that the majority of 53 children and young adults from a clinical trial showed significant improvements in ASD symptoms (8)

The authors specified that among the 53 individuals (ages 4-22), 74.5% showed improvements in overall autism symptoms, such as hyperactivity, tantrums, self-injury, attacks, sleep problems, and anxiety.

The authors also explained that the CBD treatment displayed a slightly higher improvement rate than the conventional treatment. However, the rate of improvement in anxiety symptoms remains the same.

Moreover, the authors added that the test subjects displayed mild improvements in social skills. The study suggested that better sleep quality among children with ASD might motivate social interaction with family members or caregivers. 

Based on the parent’s reports, CBD might improve ASD symptoms. However, this is considered anecdotal evidence. More research is essential in evaluating the effects of long-term CBD use (9)

Researchers have studied CBD for its anxiolytic, antiemetic, and antipsychotic properties (10).

A 2019 study from the Permanente Journal has shown that CBD might be beneficial in improving mental health. The study demonstrated improvements in anxiety and sleep disruptions among healthy adults following a month of daily CBD intake (11)

CBD has also been shown to improve numerous health conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, chronic pain, and addiction(12).  

The previous studies mentioned might be an indication that CBD might improve symptoms of ASD. However, the authors also expounded that there are several limitations in the study because improvements were reported by the test subjects’ parents. 

How CBD Oil Works to Help With Asperger’s Syndrome

The human endocannabinoid system (ECS)  is a neuromodulatory system composed of G-protein-coupled receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2). 

Cannabinoid receptors are present throughout the human body. Most are present in the central nervous system (CNS), immune system, and peripheral organs (13).

Many researchers have studied how modulating the ECS might result in several therapeutic promises in a wide range of conditions and diseases (14)

A study posted in the British Journal of Pharmacology explained how cannabinoids, such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), may have an affinity to CB1 and CB2 receptors (15).  

The authors mentioned that CBD, even with its low affinity to CB1 and CB2 receptors, might play a role in modulating the ECS.

This affinity has been shared by a study published in the Journal of Neurological Sciences. The study demonstrated that a dysfunctional ECS might be implicated in autism spectrum disorder (16)

The ECS is involved in the regulation of behavioral, social, and emotional response. The ECS may also be responsible for modulating subsets of ASD patients, such as anxiety, seizures, intellectual disabilities, and sleep disturbances (17)

A 2016 animal study published in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research suggested that increased anandamide (stimulation) of the CB1 receptors might improve ASD-related social impairment. The authors added that this activity might also be a therapeutic target for ASD (18).

Moreover, a cross-study published in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders mentioned that endocannabinoids might modulate ASD symptoms by interacting with the immune system cells (19)

The authors added the ECS might influence immunological dysfunctions associated with ASD (20)

Another study shared in Neuron supported the previous studies’ findings. The authors concurred that the ECS is involved in modulating cellular functions and molecular pathways (21).

Although researchers agree that the ECS is modulatory by nature, its mechanism behind the influence of ASD behaviors has only been conducted in animal studies. 

There is little information on ECS’ possible mechanism that could affect ASD symptoms in humans. 

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Asperger’s Syndrome

The Pros

  • Asperger’s syndrome is a mild form of ASD. A clinical test of CBD on 53 children showed significant improvements in ASD symptoms (22)
  • CBD might be beneficial for mental health by improving anxiety and sleep disruptions (23)
  • Studies suggested that CBD’s therapeutic potential in improving sleep problems might help motivate autistic children to socialize more (24).
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has acknowledged CBD as safe and well-tolerated for daily use (25).  

The Cons

  • In a clinical study, parents of children reported adverse effects, such as drowsiness and change in appetite  (26).
  • The clinical study on children with ASD has several limitations. All the information collected was based on parents’ reports. No objective assessment tool was used to measure changes in symptoms (27)
  • The mechanisms by which CBD might stimulate cannabinoid receptors and modulate ASD symptoms were done on animal studies. No definitive pathological studies on human subjects have been conducted at this time (28).
  • CBD may cause adverse effects, such as dry mouth, diarrhea, and loss of appetite (29).
  • According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), CBD may cause liver injury if consumed in extremely high doses (30).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Asperger’s Syndrome

There are no alternative treatments that specifically target AS. However, several alternative methods have been used in treating ASD.

These treatments may include omega-3 fatty acids, flavonoids, and herbal medicines (borneol and borax). 

The omega-3 fatty acid is one of the most popular dietary supplements for individuals with ASD

Although omega-3 fatty acid is commonly known for its benefits on brain development and function, the hypothesis behind its use on ASD is still not supported by scientific studies (31)

Like omega-3 fatty acids, CBD oil has been shown to have neurological benefits (32)

Researchers acknowledged that CBD might possess neurogenesis and neuroprotective properties. Moreover, CBD has also been demonstrated to act as an analgesic during animal and human studies (33)

Like CBD, flavonoid compounds and herbs (borneol, and borax) are used for their supposed anti-inflammation properties (34). However, the claims made for using these alternative remedies are not supported by scientific evidence. 

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Asperger’s Syndrome

A 2019 study published in Scientific Reports mentioned that a clinical test using cannabis oil on ASD patients showed moderate improvements in symptoms after six months (35)

In the study, most of the patients were treated with 30% CBD and 1.5% THC

In the United States, CBD products are prohibited from containing more than 0.3% THC. Meanwhile, tinctures with more than 30% CBD concentration are available in the market. 

Parents or individuals looking into the benefits of cannabis oil for ASD may find almost the same compounds in full-spectrum CBD oil (36)

Cannabinoids in full-spectrum CBD oil are cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). 

The broad-spectrum CBD oil contains all the cannabinoids except for THC. Broad-spectrum oil is recommended for individuals who do not want or cannot tolerate THC in their system.

Lastly, CBD isolate (pure CBD) is available for individuals who cannot tolerate other cannabinoids.

CBD Dosage for Asperger’s Syndrome

There is no universal dosage for CBD. However, caution is advised due to the lack of studies on how CBD might affect the individual with ASD

A recent study from Frontiers of Pharmacology recommended a daily dose of 16mg/kg (milligram per kilogram) (37)

Another study posted in the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology recommended a dosage of less than 1 milligram to 50 milligrams per kilogram per day (38).

A high CBD dosage is not recommended due to a lack of information on how CBD may affect symptoms of AS. Moreover, the FDA issued a warning that a high CBD dosage can lead to liver injury (39).

How to Take CBD Oil for Asperger’s Syndrome

CBD oil tinctures due to its distinct earthy and grassy taste. The main factor to consider when administering CBD oil to young individuals with AS is cooperation. Children with autism spectrum disorder may not consent to take CBD for its unpleasant taste.

When taking CBD oil for AS, the fastest delivery method is through CBD tinctures. If parents can get the cooperation of the child, sublingual delivery may be used. 

The sublingual delivery method can be done by putting a few drops of CBD oil under the tongue. CBD oil can also be mixed into food or beverages.

CBD gummies are also recommended. An individual with ASD can simply eat the CBD gummy as they would a regular candy. 

Vaporization is another fast delivery method. However, this method may not be for everyone.Vaping can potentially cause harm, such as chemical irritation, shortness of breath, allergic reactions, and chest pains (40).

Individuals should discuss their treatment options with a medical professional before using CBD to treat ASD.

FAQ

Can Environmental Factors Influence Risks of Autism?

Harmful environmental factors can influence the development of critical genes during critical periods of embryo formation. This influence increases the risk of the incidence of autism (41).

  • The mother’s physical and mental health – A physically and mentally unhealthy mother can increase a child’s susceptibility to autism.
  • Prenatal medication use – It has been proven that the consumption of analgesic and antipyretic drugs can increase the risk of autism during fetal development.
  • Socioeconomic status – There is an increased risk of autism when the mother is exposed to stress and anxiety.
  • Postnatal risk – Low birth weight, postnatal infection, and jaundice may increase the risk of autism. 
  • Age – Studies have found that mothers who are 34 years or older might have a higher risk of having an autistic child compared to mothers who are 25-29 years old (42).

Are There Treatments Available for Autism?

There are no known effective treatments that can cure an individual of autism. 

However, early behavioral interventions have been proven to improve communication skills and maximize an individual’s ability to function in society (43)

Not much is known about how older children with ASD might respond to behavioral interventions.

Are CBD Oil and Medical Marijuana the Same?

CBD oil is a cannabinoid that can be found in cannabis plants, mostly from Cannabis sativa or hemp. 

Manufacturers derive the compound from hemp plants to make a more concentrated version without the psychoactive effects that one may get in medical marijuana or medical cannabis

In the US, it is illegal for CBD oil to contain more than 0.3% THC, which causes psychoactive effects. 

Depending on the cannabis strains used, some medical marijuana might contain as much as 17-28% THC (44). Some states in the US allow recreational and medicinal use for cannabis (45).

Cannabis treatments are not recommended for ASD due to a lack of knowledge of how it might affect the individual.

Individuals can monitor how much THC is in their CBD oil by checking the certificate of analysis (COA). The COA is a third-party lab result that indicates how much cannabinoids are in the product.

Can CBD Oil Interact With ASD Medication?

Before using CBD oil for autism, parents must first consult with the child’s physician. CBD oil might interact with risperidone, an antipsychotic drug to treat irritability in children with ASD

Risperidone, together with CBD, might increase the risk of side effects, such as drowsiness, dizziness, and confusion (46)

Conclusion

Asperger’s syndrome is one of several forms of autism spectrum disorder. There is a lack of specific studies on how CBD might affect individuals with AS.

Researchers have shown that CBD might have therapeutic potential in treating symptoms of ASD (47)

However, even with parents’ testimonials, a more precise measuring system is needed to verify improvement in symptoms scientifically.

Also, definitive clinical studies without limitations are needed to verify CBD‘s efficacy and tolerability of individuals with ASD

Parents or individuals must consult with a developmental pediatrician before using CBD oil for autism. 


  1. G. Kuester, K. Vergara, A. Ahumad, A.M. Gazmuri., (2017)., Journal of Neurological Sciences., Oral cannabis extracts as a promising treatment for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder: Preliminary experience in Chilean patients. DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2017.08.2623
  2. Wei, D., Dinh, D., Lee, D., Li, D., Anguren, A., Moreno-Sanz, G., Gall, C. M., & Piomelli, D. (2016). Enhancement of Anandamide-Mediated Endocannabinoid Signaling Corrects Autism-Related Social Impairment. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 1(1), 81–89. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2015.0008
  3. Barchel, D., Stolar, O., De-Haan, T., Ziv-Baran, T., Saban, N., Fuchs, D. O., Koren, G., & Berkovitch, M. (2019). Oral Cannabidiol Use in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder to Treat Related Symptoms and Co-morbidities. Frontiers in pharmacology, 9, 1521. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.01521
  4. Shannon, S., (2019)., Op cit.
  5. Barchel, D.,(2019)., Op cit.
  6. The Mayo Clinic. Autism Spectrum Disorder Overview. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/autism-spectrum-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20352928#:~:text=Some%20people%20still%20use%20the,and%20at%20work%2C%20for%20example.
  7. Barchel, D., (2019)., Op cit.
  8. Ibid
  9. Ibid
  10. Detyniecki, K., & Hirsch, L. (2015). Marijuana Use in Epilepsy: The Myth and the Reality. Current neurology and neuroscience reports, 15(10), 65. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11910-015-0586-5
  11. Shannon, S., Lewis, N., Lee, H., & Hughes, S. (2019). Cannabidiol in Anxiety and Sleep: A Large Case Series. The Permanente journal, 23, 18–041. https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/18-041
  12. Kogan, N. M., & Mechoulam, R. (2007). Cannabinoids in health and disease. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 9(4), 413–430. PMCID: PMC3202504
  13. Pacher, P., Bátkai, S., & Kunos, G. (2006). The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological reviews, 58(3), 389–462. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.58.3.2
  14. Ibid
  15. Pertwee R. G. (2008). The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. British journal of pharmacology, 153(2), 199–215. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0707442
  16. G. Kuester, K. (2017)., Op cit.
  17. Zamberletti, E., Gabaglio, M., & Parolaro, D. (2017). The Endocannabinoid System and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Insights from Animal Models. International journal of molecular sciences, 18(9), 1916. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18091916
  18. Wei, D., (2016). Op cit.
  19. Siniscalco, D., Sapone, A., Giordano, C., Cirillo, A., de Magistris, L., Rossi, F., Fasano, A., Bradstreet, J. J., Maione, S., & Antonucci, N. (2013). Cannabinoid receptor type 2, but not type 1, is up-regulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children affected by autistic disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 43(11), 2686–2695. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1824-9
  20. Ibid
  21. Castillo, P. E., Younts, T. J., Chávez, A. E., & Hashimotodani, Y. (2012). Endocannabinoid signaling and synaptic function. Neuron, 76(1), 70–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2012.09.020
  22. Barchel, D., (2019)., Op cit.
  23. Shannon, S., (2019)., Op cit.
  24. Barchel, D., (2019)., Op cit.
  25. WHO. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence. (2017, Nov 6-10). Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/5.2_CBD.pdf.
  26. Barchel, D., (2019)., Op cit.
  27. Ibid
  28. G. Kuester, K. (2017)., Op cit.
  29. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700
  30. FDA. What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis
  31. Posar, A., & Visconti, P. (2016). Omega-3 supplementation in autism spectrum disorders: A still open question?. Journal of pediatric neurosciences, 11(3), 225–227. https://doi.org/10.4103/1817-1745.193363
  32. Prenderville, J. A., Kelly, Á. M., & Downer, E. J. (2015). The role of cannabinoids in adult neurogenesis. British journal of pharmacology, 172(16), 3950–3963. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.13186
  33. Maroon, J., & Bost, J. (2018). Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids. Surgical neurology international, 9, 91. https://doi.org/10.4103/sni.sni_45_18
  34. Brondino, N., Fusar-Poli, L., Rocchetti, M., Provenzani, U., Barale, F., & Politi, P. (2015). Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2015, 258589. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/258589
  35. Bar-Lev Schleider, L., Mechoulam, R., Saban, N., Meiri, G., & Novack, V. (2019). Real life Experience of Medical Cannabis Treatment in Autism: Analysis of Safety and Efficacy. Scientific reports, 9(1), 200. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37570-y
  36. De Petrocellis, L., Ligresti, A., Moriello, A. S., Allarà, M., Bisogno, T., Petrosino, S., Stott, C. G., & Di Marzo, V. (2011). Effects of cannabinoids and cannabinoid-enriched Cannabis extracts on TRP channels and endocannabinoid metabolic enzymes. British journal of pharmacology, 163(7), 1479–1494. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01166.x
  37. Barchel, D., (2019)., Op cit.
  38. Millar SA, Stone NL, Bellman ZD, Yates AS, England TJ, O’Sullivan SE. A systematic review of cannabidiol dosing in clinical populations. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2019;85(9):1888-1900. doi:10.1111/bcp.14038
  39. FDA. What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out)., Op cit.
  40. Shmerling, R.H., Can Vaping Damage Your Lungs? (2019)., Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/can-vaping-damage-your-lungs-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2019090417734
  41. Karimi, P., Kamali, E., Mousavi, S. M., & Karahmadi, M. (2017). Environmental factors influencing the risk of autism. Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 22, 27. https://doi.org/10.4103/1735-1995.200272
  42. Ibid
  43. Dawson, G., Jones, E. J., Merkle, K., Venema, K., Lowy, R., Faja, S., Kamara, D., Murias, M., Greenson, J., Winter, J., Smith, M., Rogers, S. J., & Webb, S. J. (2012). Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 51(11), 1150–1159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2012.08.018
  44. Stuyt E. (2018). The Problem with the Current High Potency THC Marijuana from the Perspective of an Addiction Psychiatrist. Missouri medicine, 115(6), 482–486.
  45. DEA., Drug Fact Sheet., Retrieved from https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/2020-06/Marijuana-Cannabis-2020_0.pdf
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