• Studies suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) may help manage inflammatory responses caused by allergic asthma(1).
  • The same study mentioned that humans may tolerate CBD without serious side effects(2). The study suggested that CBD may be a viable option for managing asthma or other chronic inflammatory diseases.
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved CBD as an asthma treatment. Individuals must consult a doctor for proper diagnosis and treatment before using CBD for health conditions or wellness purposes.

Benefits of CBD for Asthma

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid (plant-based cannabinoid) derived from cannabis.

CBD is purported to have analgesic (pain-relieving), immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory properties through the activation of cannabinoid receptors, particularly the CB1 and CB2 receptors, within the central nervous system (CNS) and immune cells(3).

The CB1 and CB2 receptors are part of the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS controls and regulates many critical body functions, including temperature control, pain control, and immune and inflammatory responses(4).

Respiratory diseases such as pneumonia may trigger asthma attacks(5). Pneumonia is an infection that causes inflammation in the air sacs in one or both lungs. This condition can lead to fever, coughing with phlegm, chills, and breathing difficulties.

Researchers have not conclusively determined whether CBD’s anti-inflammatory properties may help alleviate inflammation caused by pneumonia.

However, this benefit is a promising area of study for researchers to determine CBD’s effects on asthma or other related respiratory disorders.

Research or Studies on CBD and Asthma

One study on animal models and the role of CBD in asthma showed that CBD may help decrease the serum levels of cytokines and modulate the inflammatory response in asthma(6).

Cytokines are proteins that control the growth and activity of immune system cells and other cells that contribute to the body’s inflammatory and immune responses(7).

Although the authors conducted the study on animals, it provides promising information that may contribute to further research on CBD and asthma in humans.

Another study in the European Journal of Pharmacology mentioned that CBD is well tolerated without severe side effects in humans, even when the compound is chronically administered(8).

The study also mentioned that CBD may be a plausible option for managing asthma or other chronic inflammatory diseases.

However, the researchers acknowledged that studies had not evaluated CBD’s role in airway remodeling and possible mechanisms of action of the CB1 and CB2 receptors related to asthma.

Airway remodeling pertains to the structural changes of the airways due to asthma and is a pathological feature that contributes to the clinical manifestation of the chronic disease(9).

The same study showed that CBD may effectively reduce the structural change and inflammatory response caused by the asthma remodeling process in murine (mice) models of induced allergic asthma(10).

In an article published in Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, the authors suggested that CBD may have anti-inflammatory effects and improve lung function in mice with induced acute lung injury(11).

Although the inflammation involved in this type of induced lung injury is different from the inflammatory response typically observed in asthma models, results suggested that CBD has a positive effect on lung inflammation.

Other animal and human studies and self-reported claims mentioned that CBD may help manage chronic pain(12).

Chest pain is one of the symptoms of asthma(13). While this symptom may be a promising area for CBD’s therapeutic potential, researchers need to conduct further studies to substantiate claims that CBD helps control pain.

Proper Dosage and How to Use CBD for Asthma

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved CBD as an asthma treatment and thus, has not endorsed any standard dosing guide specific to CBD oil for asthma.

Additionally, CBD dosage requirements may vary from one individual to another due to factors like diet, exercise, health conditions, genetics, and stress levels(14).

However, individuals using CBD for the first time may consider taking the drug starting with a low dose and gradually increasing the dosage(15).

For example, individuals trying out CBD may take an initial dose of 10 milligrams (mg) of CBD daily(16).

One study stated that chronic use and high CBD doses of up to 1,500mg per day may be well tolerated in humans(17).

There are several methods individuals can choose to administer CBD, depending on how they prefer to take the compound to help manage asthma or its symptoms. These methods include:

  • Ingestion: This delivery route involves taking CBD products orally, which allows the drug to go through an individual’s gastrointestinal tract before spreading throughout the body.

Oral ingestion is among the safest ways individuals may deliver CBD into the system(18). Some oral CBD products include gummies, chews, cookies, and capsules.

Some consumers may find the oral route convenient for administering drugs. However, there is no conclusive evidence pointing out that oral CBD products are the best choice for asthma.

  • Sublingual administration: Administering CBD oil sublingually or under the tongue allows the drug to bypass the body’s gastrointestinal tract and be absorbed into the bloodstream directly.

CBD brands typically sell sublingual products, such as CBD oil tinctures or oromucosal sprays. Tincture bottles contain calibrated droppers to allow consumers to make accurate adjustments to the desired CBD dose.

CBD tinctures typically have a grassy or earthy taste unless mixed with artificial flavors.

Consumers who prefer to take tinctures may also mix these products with food or drinks(19).

Tinctures usually contain carrier oils, such as olive oil, coconut oil, or medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil, for diluting the CBD concentrate.

Other sublingual products include tablets, high-potency oils, and oromucosal sprays.

  • Topical application: In this method, individuals apply CBD to their skin. CBD topicals do not get absorbed into the bloodstream and may provide pain relief to a specific body area(20).

Examples of CBD topical products are CBD lotions, creams, salves, ointments, and balms.

  • Inhalation: This method provides a quick way to deliver CBD through smoking or vaping and may help with acute problems like nausea or acute pain(21).

Through inhalation, CBD passes through the lungs, the heart, and is then absorbed into the brain before being distributed throughout the body(22).

However, several reports are linking vaping to severe lung problems(23). Although there is no clear evidence that vaping directly leads to lung trouble, individuals should exercise caution before purchasing vapes as these products can cause health risks leading to lung disease(24).

Before using CBD to help manage existing medical conditions, individuals must consult a doctor or healthcare professional for a diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Regarding onset times, researchers have not conducted clinical trials determining how long CBD starts taking effect specifically for asthma.

However, CBD, in general, has varying onset times based on the following delivery methods(25):

  • Oral ingestion: 30 to 90 minutes
  • Sublingual administration: 15 to 30 minutes
  • Topical application: 15 to 30 minutes
  • Inhalation: 2 to 15 minutes

In addition, the different administration routes also determine how long CBD’s effects may last, such as the following(26):

  • Oral ingestion: Six to eight hours
  • Sublingual administration: Two to four hours
  • Topical application: Two to four hours
  • Inhalation: Two to four hours

While there are different methods to administer CBD, individuals may also choose from three categories of CBD products: full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, or isolate.

  • Full-spectrum CBD oil: This product typically contains most of the cannabinoids and compounds in the cannabis plant. Such compounds may include flavonoids, terpenes, and THC.

Flavonoids are plant substances that have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties(27).

Meanwhile, terpenes produce a distinct aroma in cannabis plants and may be utilized as essential oil constituents that also have a potential benefit in aromatherapy(28).

Combining these compounds in full-spectrum CBD oil may produce an “entourage effect.” This effect is the synergistic activity resulting from the cannabis compounds working together to give better therapeutic results(29).

  • Broad-spectrum CBD oil: CBD oil products classified as broad-spectrum contain most cannabinoids usually found in full-spectrum CBD oil. However, broad-spectrum CBD oil does not contain THC.
  • CBD isolate: A CBD isolate is made from pure CBD only. This product does not have THC and contains no other compounds or cannabinoids.

Individuals who are averse to THC’s psychoactive effects and prefer THC-free CBD products may consider buying broad-spectrum CBD oil products or CBD isolates.

However, consumers interested in the full benefits of CBD oil brought by the entourage effect may opt for full-spectrum CBD oil.

Side Effects of CBD

Researchers have not performed clinical studies on the side effects of CBD when taken specifically for asthma.

However, CBD may generally cause side effects that may be well tolerated among humans, such as dry mouth, fatigue, drowsiness, appetite loss, and diarrhea(30).

Additionally, commonly reported side effects of the substance include tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in appetite or body weight(31).

One study on patients taking CBD oil prescriptions mentioned that some participants experienced sedation and vivid dreams(32).

CBD Precautions

Individuals should take precautions when considering taking CBD together with other medications. CBD may increase or decrease the breakdown of other drugs through interactions with cytochrome P450 enzymes(33).

Cytochrome P450 enzymes have an essential role in metabolizing or breaking down many medications. Among the more than 50 enzymes within the class, six can metabolize 90% of drugs(34).

Asthmatic individuals or asthma patients currently under medication should consult a doctor well versed in cannabis or CBD use to know whether CBD may be taken together with asthma-related drugs.

History of CBD

Cannabis is a botanical or plant-based compound whose origins may be traced back to what is now Romania more than 5,000 years ago(35).

One direct source of evidence found in ashes suggested that cannabis was first used for medicinal purposes around 400 A.D.

In the United States, individuals widely utilized cannabis as a patent medicine during the 19th and early 20th centuries, as described in the United States Pharmacopoeia for the first time in 1850(36)

Cannabis use and cannabis sale became federally restricted in 1937 with the enactment of the Marihuana Tax Act.

According to the 2018 Farm Bill, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is tasked with creating a regulatory hemp production framework(37). The law also excluded hemp and other cannabis derivatives containing less than 0.3% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from the Controlled Substances Act’s “marijuana” definition(38).

THC is a cannabis plant-derived compound typically associated with marijuana use due to the substance’s psychoactive effects that create a feeling of “high”(39).

United States federal law mentions that CBD products whose THC content exceeds 0.3% are illegal(40).

In 2020, the FDA approved Epidiolex, an oral medicine containing purified CBD, to treat epilepsy-associated seizures(41).

The U.S. has regulated cannabis programs that vary from one state to another. As of February 2022, 37 states, including New York, California, Arizona, Oregon, and Colorado, permit the medical use of cannabis(42).

Before purchasing CBD products, individuals must review and understand their state’s laws to avoid legal trouble related to CBD use.

What Is Asthma?

Asthma is a disease defined by chronic airway inflammation(43). This condition causes the airways to swell and become narrow, causing an individual to cough and have difficulty breathing.

The individual can also experience shortness of breath or whistling sounds when breathing.

While some individuals may see asthma as a minor nuisance, the condition can be significantly bothersome to others and can even disrupt their daily activities.

Asthma can affect anyone regardless of age, and allergic individuals or those exposed to tobacco smoke have a higher risk of developing asthma(44).

Smoke exposure also includes secondhand smoke (exposure to another individual who is smoking) and thirdhand smoke (exposure to clothing or surfaces where other individuals have smoked).

Statistics show that individuals assigned female at birth tend to have asthma more than individuals assigned male at birth(45).

While there is no treatment to cure asthma, there are ways to control the symptoms of this disease. Individuals must consult a doctor for a diagnosis and help track the symptoms to help make the appropriate treatment adjustments.

Symptoms and Types of Asthma

The symptoms of asthma can vary among individuals. For example, one individual can experience coughing only during certain activities or times of day, while others have those symptoms all the time.

Asthma symptoms include the following(46):

  • Chest pain or tightness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Wheezing (whistling while exhaling)
  • Coughing that gets worse with respiratory viruses, such as colds or flu
  • Sleeping difficulties

Asthma can be classified into the following(47):

  • Pediatric asthma: This disease, also called childhood asthma, often begins before the child turns five and can manifest in infants and toddlers. However, children may outgrow this type of asthma.

Individuals should discuss this disease with their child’s healthcare provider before deciding whether the child will require an inhaler in case of an asthma attack.

  • Adult-onset asthma: This type of asthma begins after the individual turns 18.

Additionally, asthma has several types based on the situation where symptoms can flare up, such as the following(48):

  • Allergy-induced asthma: Airborne substances such as mold spores, pollen, skin particles, or dried pet saliva can cause allergic asthma attacks in some individuals.
  • Exercise-induced asthma: Cold or dry air can trigger asthma attacks in some individuals performing exercises under such environmental conditions.
  • Occupational asthma: Workplace irritants, such as dust, gases, or chemical fumes, can trigger asthma, especially among workers exposed to these irritants for long periods.

Another type of asthma is called asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS), which happens when the individual has asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Both diseases make breathing difficult.

Furthermore, asthma can worsen over time. Some signs indicating a worsening condition include(49):

  • Increased breathing difficulty
  • More frequent and bothersome occurrence of asthma symptoms
  • More frequent use of a quick-relief inhaler

Causes of Asthma

The exact reason why some individuals develop asthma and other individuals do not is unclear. However, experts point out that a combination of environmental factors and genetic or inherited factors contribute to the triggering of the disease(50).

Allergens are substances or irritants that trigger allergies which, in turn, can trigger various asthma symptoms. The effects of such asthma triggers can vary between individuals.

Asthma triggers include the following(51):

  • Air pollution: This trigger includes car exhausts, factory emissions, wildfire smoke, and other factors that cause air-based pollution.
  • Dust mites: These bugs are typically present inside homes and are challenging to find. Individuals with a dust mite allergy can experience an asthma attack.
  • Pests: Mice, cockroaches, and other household pests can trigger asthma attacks.
  • Mold: Damp places can produce molds, which can cause allergic reactions that may lead to asthma.
  • Tobacco smoke: Individuals have a high risk of having asthma if they or someone in their home smokes.

Smokers should not smoke in enclosed spaces like inside the car or at home. One recommendation to reduce the risk of asthma attacks is to quit smoking.

  • Pets: Pets can produce dander (dried skin flakes) which can irritate the airways and cause asthma attacks when inhaled.
  • Exercise: Some individuals may experience an asthma attack due to physical exercise.
  • Strong chemicals or smells: Industrial or household chemicals can produce strong or irritating smells that can trigger attacks in some people.
  • Occupational exposures: Individuals working in certain occupations that expose them to various irritants such as flour, wood dust, or cleaning products can be at risk of asthma attacks.
  • Medications: Certain medications, including beta-blockers, aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as naproxen sodium (Aleve) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB), can trigger allergies(52).

Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options for Asthma

Aside from asthma having no cure, there is no clear solution to prevent the disease. Individuals must work with a doctor to design a program to help control the symptoms and prevent asthma attacks.

The recommendations below may help individuals manage asthma and its symptoms(53):

  • Getting vaccinated for pneumonia and influenza: Vaccinations can help prevent certain diseases like flu and pneumonia from triggering asthma flare-ups.

Influenza or flu is a viral infection affecting the respiratory system. Symptoms of this disease include fever, muscle ache, headache, sore throat, sweating, and dry cough.

  • Monitoring breathing: One way for individuals to recognize warning signs of an impending asthma attack is by observing their breath. Signs of such an attack include shortness of breath, slight coughing, or wheezing.

However, lung function may decrease before the individual notices any signs or symptoms. Thus, individuals should regularly measure and record their airflow using a home peak flow meter.

A peak flow meter is an inexpensive and portable device that measures an individual’s ability to push air out of the lungs. Doctors can teach individuals how to use a peak flow meter to monitor airflow at home.

  • Following an asthma action plan: The individual should collaborate with their doctor and the healthcare team in designing a detailed plan for administering medications and managing an asthma attack.

Due to asthma being a persistent condition requiring regular monitoring and treatment, an action plan helps individuals control their treatment and feel more in control of their lives.

  • Identifying and avoiding asthma triggers: Various irritants and outdoor allergens such as pollen, mold, air pollution, or cold air can trigger asthma attacks.

Identifying these allergens allows asthmatic individuals to avoid such triggers and prevent or lower the risk of an asthma attack.

  • Taking medication as prescribed: Individuals with asthma should not change their medications without consulting their doctor first, even if their asthma is perceived to improve.

When visiting a doctor, asthmatic individuals may bring their medications to ensure that such drugs are correct and being taken with the right dose.

  • Treating the attacks early: Individuals who act quickly when an attack occurs are less likely to experience a severe asthma attack.

For example, when an individual’s peak flow measurements decrease and indicate an upcoming attack, the individual should take their medication as instructed.

Additionally, individuals should immediately stop any activity triggering the attack. If symptoms do not improve, individuals should ask for medical help according to the details in the action plan.

  • Observe increasing quick-relief inhaler use: If an asthmatic individual increasingly relies on their inhaler, their asthma is likely not under control. The individual should see their doctor and have their treatment adjusted.

Doctors can perform a diagnosis to determine if an individual has asthma or how severe the condition is by doing a physical exam or performing tests to measure lung function.

Physical tests help the doctor rule out other conditions, such as COPD or respiratory infection. Doctors will also ask questions about any signs or symptoms an individual may observe or feel to collect further information.

Lung function tests help determine the amount of air moving in and out of an individual’s airways as they breathe. Doctors can perform two types of lung function tests:

  • Spirometry: This test checks how much air an individual can exhale after breathing deep and how fast the individual can breathe out. The result is an estimate of the narrowing of the individual’s bronchial tubes.

Bronchial tubes, or bronchi, are the two large tubes that carry air from the windpipe to the lungs. Meanwhile, bronchioles are the air passages within the lungs that branch off from the bronchi.

  • Peak flow: This test utilizes a peak flow meter device that measures how hard an individual can exhale.

Low peak flow readings indicate that the lungs may not work normally and that the individual’s asthma may worsen(54).

A doctor can instruct how an individual can track and manage low peak flow readings.

These lung function tests are usually done before and after taking a bronchodilator medication that helps open the airways.

An individual whose lung function improves while using a bronchodilator is likely to have asthma(55).

Other tests doctors can perform to diagnose asthma include:

  • Imaging tests: A chest X-ray helps identify structural abnormalities or diseases that can cause or worsen breathing problems.
  • Nitric oxide test: This test measures how much nitric oxide is in an individual’s breath.

Higher than normal nitric oxide levels may be a sign of inflamed airways, indicating asthma. However, this test is not widely available.

  • Allergy testing: Healthcare providers can perform allergy tests through skin tests or blood tests. These tests can tell if the individual is allergic to dust, mold, pollen, or pets.

If there are any identified allergy triggers, the doctor can recommend allergy shots.

  • Methacholine challenge: Methacholine is a medicine known to trigger asthma that may cause the airways to narrow slightly upon inhalation. Individuals with a reaction to methacholine are likely to have asthma.

This test may also be conducted even if the individual’s initial lung function test is normal.

  • Sputum eosinophils test: This test identifies certain white blood cells called eosinophils in the saliva and mucus mixture (sputum) discharged when coughing.

Eosinophils become visible when stained with a rose-colored dye and appear when symptoms develop.

  • Cold-induced asthma and provocative testing for exercise: These tests involve measuring the airway obstruction before and after an individual performs a vigorous physical activity or takes several breaths of cold air.

Diagnosis through physical exams and lung function tests allows doctors to determine the asthma severity and helps them select the best treatment. Asthma has four categories(56):

  • Mild intermittent: Mild symptoms manifest for up to two days a week or up to two nights a month.
  • Mild persistent: Symptoms appear more than twice a week. However, these symptoms should not manifest more than once per day.
  • Moderate persistent: Symptoms appear once per day or more than one night per week.
  • Severe persistent: Symptoms manifest throughout the day on most days and frequently at night.

Healthcare providers can prescribe various medications to help individuals manage and control asthma. These medications include long-term medications, bronchodilators, or allergy medications.

  • Long-term asthma control medications: These medications help reduce airway inflammation or swelling(57). These drugs may help keep asthma under control when taken daily and lower the likelihood of an asthma attack.

Long-term control medications include:

  • Inhaled corticosteroids: These drugs produce anti-inflammatory effects and act directly on the lungs to inhibit inflammation that causes asthma(58).

Medications under this category include fluticasone propionate (Flovent HFA, Xhance), ciclesonide (Alvesco), budesonide (Pulmicort Flexhaler), and mometasone (Asmanex Twisthaler).

  • Combination inhalers: These medications contain long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) and corticosteroids.

LABAs are medicines that help improve lung functions, health-related quality of life, and symptoms of exercise limitation and breathlessness(59).

The FDA recommends using LABAs only in conjunction with inhaled steroids for asthma(60).

Examples of combination inhalers are fluticasone-salmeterol (Advair HFA, Airduo Digihaler), fluticasone furoate-vilanterol (Breo Ellipta), and formoterol-mometasone (Dulera).

  • Leukotriene modifiers: These oral medicines help relieve asthma symptoms(61). Examples of leukotriene modifiers are zafirlukast (Accolate) and montelukast (Singulair).

However, montelukast has been associated with psychological side effects, including aggression, agitation, depression, and hallucinations(62).

Thus, individuals who experience these effects after taking the medication should seek medical help immediately.

  • Theophylline: Individuals take this medication to help prevent and treat shortness of breath, wheezing, and chest tightness due to asthma(63).

Theophylline brand names include Elixophyllin, Theo-24, and Theochron.

  • Quick-relief medications: These drugs help decrease swelling and mucus production in the airways, making the entry and exit of air in the lungs easier.

Examples of quick-relief drugs include(64):

  • Anticholinergic agents. These medications produce a bronchodilatory effect that acts quickly to relax the airways and make breathing easier immediately.

Such agents include ipratropium (Atrovent HFA) and tiotropium (Spiriva Respimat).

These medications are typically used for emphysema (shortness of breath) and chronic bronchitis (long-term bronchi inflammation). However, these drugs may also be used to treat asthma.

  • Short-acting beta-agonists: These inhaled bronchodilators act within minutes to rapidly relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

These beta-agonists include levalbuterol (Xopenex, Xopenex HFA) and albuterol (Ventolin HFA, ProAir HFA).

Individuals can take short-acting beta-agonists using a portable, hand-held nebulizer or inhaler.

This device converts asthma medications to a fine mist, inhaled through a mouthpiece or face mask.

  • Oral and intravenous corticosteroids: These medications relieve airway inflammation caused by severe asthma.

Examples of oral or intravenous corticosteroids are prednisone (Prednisone Intensol) and methylprednisolone (Medrol, Solu-Medrol).

Individuals should take precautions when using these medications as oral and intravenous corticosteroids can cause severe side effects when used in the long term.

  • Allergy medications: These drugs may help if the individual’s asthma is triggered or worsened by allergies. These include(65):
    • Allergy shots (immunotherapy): Allergy shots gradually reduce an individual’s immune system reaction to specific allergens over time.Asthmatic individuals generally receive their allergy shots once a week for a few months, then once a month for three to five years.
    • Biologics: These medications are prescribed specifically for individuals with severe asthma. Biologics include dupilumab (Dupixent), omalizumab (Xolair), and reslizumab (Cinqair).

Reducing an individual’s exposure to asthma triggers is another method of controlling asthma. To reduce exposure, an individual may perform the following(66):

  • Clean regularly. Individuals should clean their homes at least once a week, especially places that gather much dust.

If there is a high likelihood that dust will be stirred up while cleaning, individuals should wear a mask.

  • Cover nose and mouth when the air is cold or dry: Individuals likely to get an asthma attack or worsen asthma symptoms due to cold or dry air should wear a face mask.
  • Use the air conditioner: Air conditioning helps reduce the number of airborne pollen that gets indoors.

Air conditioning can also lower humidity and reduce an individual’s exposure to dust mites.

Individuals with no air conditioning should keep their windows closed, especially during the pollen season.

  • Maintain optimal humidity: Individuals who live in a damp climate should consider getting a dehumidifier.

A dehumidifier is an appliance that removes moisture from the air and helps reduce the potential of molds and mildew developing on curtains, bed sheets, clothing, and furniture.

  • Decontaminate household decors: Dust on certain bedroom items may worsen nighttime symptoms.

Cleaning or replacing these items, such as pillows and mattresses, or encasing them in dustproof covers and avoiding using down-filled pillows and blankets may help reduce the risk for such symptoms.

Other ways to decontaminate household decors include removing carpeting, installing hardwood or linoleum flooring, and using washable blinds and curtains.

  • Reduce pet dander: Individuals allergic to dander should avoid pets with fur or feathers. Regularly bathing or grooming pets may also reduce pet dander in the area.
  • Prevent mold spores: Damp areas in the kitchen, bathroom, and around the house are places where mold spores develop. Individuals should clean these damp areas and remove moldy leaves in the yard.

  1. Cannabidiol Reduces Airway Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Allergic Asthma
  2. Ibid.
  3. Ibid.
  4. The Endocannabinoid System: Essential and Mysterious
  5. Asthma: Symptoms & Causes
  6. Evaluation of Serum Cytokines Levels and the Role of Cannabidiol Treatment in Animal Model of Asthma
  7. Cytokines and Their Side Effects
  8. Cannabidiol Reduces Airway Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Allergic Asthma
  9. Airway Remodeling in Asthma
  10. Cannabidiol Reduces Airway Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Allergic Asthma
  11. Cannabidiol Improves Lung Function and Inflammation in Mice Submitted to LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury
  12. Cannabidiol (CBD)-What We Know and What We Don’t
  13. Asthma: Symptoms & Causes
  14. CBD Dosing
  15. Ibid.
  16. Page 218 of Healing With CBD
  17. Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa Constituent
  18. CBD Products Are Everywhere. But Do They Work?
  19. Page 208 of Healing With CBD
  20. Page 210 of Healing With CBD
  21. Best Way to Take CBD
  22. Ibid.
  23. Can Vaping Damage Your Lungs? What We Do (and Don’t) Know
  24. Ibid.
  25. Page 190-193 of Healing With CBD
  26. Ibid.
  27. Flavonoids as Antioxidants
  28. The Cannabis Terpenes
  29. Page 92 of Healing With CBD
  30. What Are the Benefits of CBD — And Is It Safe to Use?
  31. Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials
  32. Cannabidiol Prescription in Clinical Practice: An Audit on the First 400 Patients in New Zealand
  33. Cannabidiol Primer for Healthcare Professionals
  34. The Effect of Cytochrome P450 Metabolism on Drug Response, Interactions, and Adverse Effects
  35. Medicinal Cannabis: History, Pharmacology, And Implications for the Acute Care Setting
  36. Ibid.
  37. Hemp Production
  38. Hemp Production and the 2018 Farm Bill
  39. Tetrahydrocannabinol
  40. CBD & THC: Myths and Misconceptions
  41. FDA Approves New Indication for Drug Containing an Active Ingredient Derived from Cannabis to Treat Seizures in Rare Genetic Disease
  42. State Medical Cannabis Laws
  43. Cannabidiol Reduces Airway Inflammation and Fibrosis in Experimental Allergic Asthma
  44. Asthma
  45. Ibid.
  46. Asthma: Symptoms & Causes
  47. Asthma
  48. Asthma: Symptoms & Causes
  49. Ibid.
  50. Ibid.
  51. Asthma
  52. Asthma: Symptoms & Causes
  53. Ibid.
  54. Asthma: Diagnosis & Treatment
  55. Ibid.
  56. Ibid.
  57. Ibid.
  58. Inhaled Corticosteroids
  59. Long-Acting Beta-Agonists in the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Current and Future Agents
  60. Long-Acting Beta-Agonists (LABAs)
  61. Asthma: Diagnosis & Treatment
  62. Ibid.
  63. Theophylline
  64. Asthma: Diagnosis & Treatment
  65. Ibid.
  66. Ibid.
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