CBD’s Antifungal Properties and Benefits

Does CBD oil help with fungus, and if so, how? 

  • Researchers of 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology noted that cannabinoids cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabichromene (CBC) might boost the effects of an extremely potent antifungal, caryophyllene oxide(1).
  • Many terpenes have been found to possess antifungal properties, as a study published in the Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Journal in 2018 indicated. However, the authors reported that none of the essential oils in the study was as effective as purified CBD(2)
  • The highly lipophilic nature of terpenes makes them capable of disrupting the cell membrane, causing cell death or inhibiting the proliferation of certain fungi, according to authors of a 2017 study published in the Pharmaceuticals Journal(3).
  • Results of a study which was published in Clinical Microbiology Reviews show that both CBG and CBC possess antifungal properties. When these cannabinoids are combined, they produce an entourage effect which can be found in a full spectrum CBD-rich oil, also called whole plant extract(4).
  • Consulting with a trusted medical practitioner experienced with cannabis use is the best course of action for anyone looking to try CBD for the first time or include CBD in their current regimen.

Best Antifungal CBD Oils 

1. Canna Trading CBD Full Spectrum Gel Capsules

CBD Full Spectrum Gel Capsules Bottle

Full spectrum CBD refers to extractions from hemp plants that leave all of the naturally present cannabinoids and terpenes intact, including THC. The refinement process is minimal in order to leave all of these components intact. Only chlorophyll, plant matter and unwanted compounds are removed. What is left is a clean, cannabinoid-rich liquid. Their CBD gel capsules contain 25 mg of full spectrum hemp CBD extract per serving. These are an excellent alternative to their tinctures as capsules are a widely used delivery method and are easily incorporated into one’s daily vitamin regimen.

Check Latest Price

2. Mellowment For Inflammation Softgels

Mellowment For Inflammation Softgels Bottle

Reducing inflammation can do more than just relieve pain and accelerate recovery from exertion as studies show it can help improve one’s mental state as well. The active nanoemulsion in each softgel contains 25 mg of CBD-rich broad-spectrum hemp extract, and 10 mg of Curcumin C3 Complex (the anti-inflammatory compound in turmeric), making for a uniquely advanced, water-soluble CBD + antioxidant formula. All of their hemp extracts are specially processed to selectively remove THC, eliminating the risk of experiencing undesired psychoactive effects, or failing a drug test.

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3. PlusCBD Oil Gold Drops

PlusCBD Oil Gold Drops Bottle

Containing cannabidiol (CBD) from agricultural hemp, +PlusCBD™ Oil Drops provide enhancing CBD support using our best-selling Gold Formula, the highest concentration of CBD they offer. Like all +PlusCBD™ Oil products, their drops are Non-GMO, gluten free and tested to ensure the best quality CBD available. Hemp CBD extracts are well-known for their remarkable safety profile. Their +PlusCBD™ Oil Gold Formula is the first full spectrum hemp extract to be self-affirmed Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS).

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Why People are Turning to CBD for Antifungal Treatment 

Antifungal medications are known to cause some side effects, especially when administered internally or taken orally. 

Adverse reactions may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, rashes, skin redness, and itching or burning. These side effects are typically mild and last for a short period of time(5).

Occasionally, antifungal medicines may cause severe side effects, such as swelling of the face, neck or tongue, difficulty breathing, peeling or blistering skin, and liver damage characterized by nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, and jaundice(6).

To those who seek a safer and more natural remedy, CBD may be able to provide relief from fungal infections without the adverse side effects that typically come with the use of conventional antifungals.

A 2011 study published in the British Journal of Pharmacology showed that certain cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabichromene (CBC), have moderate antifungal properties(7).

The study mostly examined the therapeutic benefits of THC, the cannabinoid that induces psychoactive effects on the user, and not CBD.

Still, the researchers noted that the three cannabinoids CBD, CBG, and CBC might boost the effects of an extremely potent antifungal, caryophyllene oxide.

Caryophyllene oxide is the oxidized form of beta-caryophyllene, one of the primary terpenes found in cannabis, basil, hops, pepper, and rosemary.

Terpenes, or isoprenoids, which are similar to essential oils, provide cannabis plants their distinctive aromas and flavors. Many of the terpenes have also been found to possess antifungal properties, as a study published in the Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Journal in 2018 indicated(8).

In the said study, researchers noted that none of the essential oils was as effective as purified CBD. They also suggested that terpenoids (chemically-modified terpenes) may be used to reduce inflammation.

Meanwhile, research has shown that terpenes help carry major cannabinoids, like CBD, through the bloodstream(9)

Terpenes form the largest group of phytochemicals, according to the authors, and are vital contributors to the pharmacological properties of many medicinal herbs. Some terpenes, such as β-amyrin and cycloartenol, have been shown to possess antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties(10).

A 2006 study examined essential oils containing the terpenes, alpha-pinene and delta 3 carene, which are found in the cannabis plant. This study found that both of the terpenes, delta 3 carene in particular, had antifungal benefits(11).

In the said study, which was published in the Applied Microbiology Journal, results supported the theory that essential oils or some of their constituents may be useful in the clinical management of fungal infections.

  Another study revealed the moderate antibacterial and strong antifungal effects of orange jessamine essential oil containing beta-caryophyllene, a terpene found in some cannabis strains. Researchers also noted that the essential oil acted fast to kill the fungus(12).

While the studies mentioned above are not specific to CBD, the results are an indication that the vast array of compounds contained in cannabis have numerous health benefits, including as a potential fungicide.

Meanwhile, CBD has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory characteristics which may help with symptoms of fungal infections, such as swelling, redness, and heat(13).

CBD’s anti-inflammatory characteristics have been demonstrated in several human and animal studies, like that of a 2014 study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation and a 2012 research conducted by authors from the Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine in the University of São Paulo, Brazil(14).

Another research published in the Free Radical Biology & Medicine Journal showed that CBD, which may interact with the endocannabinoid system, is a promising prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development(15).

The said research corroborates CBD’s potential to help support body movement and healthy joints. The authors’ findings suggest CBD interacts with the immune system, thereby reducing stress and inflammation.

Studies like these suggest that CBD, as a potent anti-inflammation compound, may also help with fungal diseases. 

How CBD Oil Works as an Antifungal

One needs to understand first the mechanism by which antifungals work to comprehend how CBD works as an antifungal.

Fungi and humans have similar intracellular structure, as both are composed of eukaryotic cells, which, unlike bacteria, have a membrane protecting its nuclei.

Also, both humans and fungi are heterotrophic, meaning both species generate energy by feeding on other organisms in the ecosystem instead of producing their own food like plants do(16).

A 2018 study published in the Journal of Fungi shows that the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis is the mode of action of many antifungal drugs(17).

Ergosterol is an immunologically active lipid that induces pyroptosis, according to authors of a 2018 study in a journal published by the American Society for Microbiology(18).

Pyroptosis (from the Greek roots “pyro,” relating to fire or fever, and “ptosis”, denoting falling) is the proinflammatory programmed cell death(19)

Thus, antifungals work by inhibiting the production of ergosterol in fungi, ultimately destroying the cell membranes of the fungi without affecting the human cells in the process, as explained in 2017 study that examined the mechanistic targets of antifungal agents(20).

Consequently, if the cell membranes are not there to protect the fungus, the fungus is destroyed.

So, how does CBD work as an antifungal?

At their chemical core, nearly all cannabinoids have a single hydroxyl group of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, as researchers of a study published in the Journal of Natural Products in 2016 noted(21).

As explained in the said study, these hydroxyl groups attract other compounds that include oxygen. When these compounds meet and react, they go through a chemical process called oxidation, which binds them, forever changing both molecules.

After the molecules have gone through oxidation with cannabinoids, fungal cells cannot build on themselves and continue multiplying. In their oxidized state, fungal cells are unable to proliferate as they cannot produce ergosterol, which they need to survive.

This mechanism explains how cannabinoids prevent fungal infections from spreading by blocking them on a molecular level.

Although the said study was conducted on only nine biologically active cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa and did not include CBD, the results illustrate how cannabinoids work as antifungals.

In another study, researchers explored the mode of action of antifungal agents cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabichromene (CBC)(22). Results of the study, which was published in Clinical Microbiology Reviews, show that both of these cannabinoids, present in full-spectrum cannabis oil, possess antifungal properties.

When these components are combined together, they produce an entourage effect which can be found in a full spectrum CBD-rich oil, also called whole-plant extract.

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil as an Antifungal

The Pros 

  • Studies mentioned previously demonstrate CBD’s anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties, which may help with fungus. 
  • CBD is non-addictive, says Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in a 2015 article(23). This characteristic makes CBD safe for daily intake when fasting for an extended period.
  • CBD “is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile,” as the World Health Organization (WHO) stated in a critical review(24)
  • CBD oil may be purchased without a prescription in locations where they are legally available.

The Cons

  • Studies are too limited to determine whether or not CBD is an effective treatment for conditions other than the ones approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • As with the use of any natural chemical compound, there are risks involved in using CBD. According to the Mayo Clinic, possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, diarrhea, fatigue, and reduced appetite(25).
  • CBD can alter how the body metabolizes certain medications. Data from a 2019 study published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine indicated that antifungals and anti-inflammatory medicines are among those that adversely interact with CBD(26).
  • Dr Doris Trauner, professor of neurosciences and pediatrics at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and a physician at San Diego’s Rady Children’s Hospital, cautions that CBD products marketed online and in dispensaries are mostly unregulated(27).

The lack of regulation makes it difficult to determine whether the CBD gummies, tinctures, patches, balms, and gelcaps contain what the product label claims.

A 2107 review published in the Journal of the American Medical Association revealed labeling inaccuracies among CBD products. Some products had less CBD than stated, while others had more(28).

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for Fungus

There has been a great interest in using essential oils as possible natural alternatives for conventional synthetic fungicides, according to a 2017 study published in the Pharmaceuticals Journal(29).

Researchers found that essential oils could represent one of the most promising natural products for fungal inhibition. They also noted that a wide variety of essential oils obtained from different plants or herbs exhibited powerful antifungal properties.

Another noteworthy finding was that essential oils could also attenuate the microbial growth and biofilm development through specific mechanisms.

Classified as “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) by the U. S. Food and Drugs Administration (FDA), essential oils are not harmful and are preferred by consumers over synthetic agents(30). 

The antimicrobial or antifungal activity of essential oil may be attributed to the properties of terpenes or terpenoids, as researchers of a study published in the Pharmaceuticals Journal suggest. The terpenes’ highly lipophilic nature makes them capable of disrupting the cell membrane, causing cell death or inhibiting the proliferation of certain fungi(31).

In a study published in the Molecules Journal in 2018, ten essential oils showed outstanding antifungal and cytotoxic (toxic to cells) activities: Indian, Australian, and Hawaiian sandalwoods, melissa, lemongrass, cilantro, cassia, cinnamon, patchouli, and vetiver(32).

Researchers found that several essential oils showed notable antifungal actions against fungal pathogens. Thus, these oils may be a viable addition to current antifungal treatment options, as agents themselves or as adjuvant therapies, to combat fungal infections.

So, how does CBD oil compare to essential oils as alternative antifungals?

According to a 2017 study published in the Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research Journal, CBD has a better side effect profile in comparison with other drugs(33). Thus, CBD is generally safe to use.

The authors explained that this safety feature could improve patients’ compliance and adherence to treatment, as CBD is often used as an adjunct therapy.

In an article posted by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) in June 2019, CBD was described to be a potentially active agent for disrupting biofilms, a physical form of bacteria growth that leads to difficult-to-treat infections(34).

Like essential oils, full-spectrum CBD oil is derived from plants, most of which naturally contain potent terpenes beneficial in fighting fungus. 

CBD oil’s high lipophilicity is another characteristic it shares with essential oils. This lipophilic property is what may help facilitate the diffusion of CBD oil, making it readily absorbed when used in topical or transdermal applications(35). 

How to Choose the Right CBD to Help with Fungus

Studies cited previously show that CBD is not the only cannabinoid with antifungal properties. Hence, when choosing a CBD product to help with fungal infections, opt for one that contains full-spectrum CBD oil.

Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all phytonutrients from hemp, including trace amounts of THC, terpenes, flavonoids, and essential oils. These compounds work together to intensify the therapeutic benefits of each individual cannabinoid, resulting in the “entourage effect”.

Those with allergies to THC may opt to use broad-spectrum CBD oil, which is like full-spectrum CBD but without the THC that makes the user high.

However, regardless of the form of CBD product of choice, careful consideration must still be employed in selecting the best CBD oil to help with inflammation, fungal infection, and itchiness.

The following factors are essential to ensure the safety and reliability of the CBD products purchased:

  1. Research on the exact legal stipulations applicable to CBD in the area where it would be purchased and used.
  2. Purchase only high-quality CBD products from legitimate and reliable brands. The majority of companies that manufacture the best CBD oil products grow their hemp from their farm, or they purchase from licensed hemp producers.
  3. Research product reviews before buying from an online store. When buying from a physical store or dispensary, check whether the store is authorized by the government to sell CBD.
  4. One important thing to look for in CBD products is certification codes. Several certification authorities approve certain products only after some thorough screening tests. 
  5. Compare company claims about their products’ potency with that of the third-party lab reports. 
  6. Consulting with a trusted medical professional who is experienced in CBD use is ideal before one purchases his or her first bottle of CBD. 

Best Antifungal CBD Oils 

1. Canna Trading CBD Full Spectrum Gel Capsules

CBD Full Spectrum Gel Capsules Bottle

Full spectrum CBD refers to extractions from hemp plants that leave all of the naturally present cannabinoids and terpenes intact, including THC. The refinement process is minimal in order to leave all of these components intact. Only chlorophyll, plant matter and unwanted compounds are removed. What is left is a clean, cannabinoid-rich liquid. Their CBD gel capsules contain 25 mg of full spectrum hemp CBD extract per serving. These are an excellent alternative to their tinctures as capsules are a widely used delivery method and are easily incorporated into one’s daily vitamin regimen.

Check Latest Price

2. Mellowment For Inflammation Softgels

Mellowment For Inflammation Softgels Bottle

Reducing inflammation can do more than just relieve pain and accelerate recovery from exertion as studies show it can help improve one’s mental state as well. The active nanoemulsion in each softgel contains 25 mg of CBD-rich broad-spectrum hemp extract, and 10 mg of Curcumin C3 Complex (the anti-inflammatory compound in turmeric), making for a uniquely advanced, water-soluble CBD + antioxidant formula. All of their hemp extracts are specially processed to selectively remove THC, eliminating the risk of experiencing undesired psychoactive effects, or failing a drug test.

Check Latest Price

3. PlusCBD Oil Gold Drops

PlusCBD Oil Gold Drops Bottle

Containing cannabidiol (CBD) from agricultural hemp, +PlusCBD™ Oil Drops provide enhancing CBD support using our best-selling Gold Formula, the highest concentration of CBD they offer. Like all +PlusCBD™ Oil products, their drops are Non-GMO, gluten free and tested to ensure the best quality CBD available. Hemp CBD extracts are well-known for their remarkable safety profile. Their +PlusCBD™ Oil Gold Formula is the first full spectrum hemp extract to be self-affirmed Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS).

Check Latest Price

Antifungal CBD Dosage

There is no recommended CBD dosage specific for fighting fungus or any type of fungal infections.

According to an article written by Peter Grinspoon, MD, on Harvard Health in August 2019, experts do not know the most effective therapeutic dose of CBD for any particular medical condition(36)

Without sufficient high-quality evidence in human studies, effective doses cannot be determined. Also, Grinspoon says that given that CBD is currently mostly available as an unregulated supplement, it is difficult to know what the consumers are getting. 

Grinspoon’s advice to those looking to try and purchase CBD products is to talk with their doctor to make sure that taking CBD would not cause adverse interactions with other medications that are currently taken.

In a 2017 study, researchers said that chronic CBD use and large doses of up to 1500 mg a day had been repeatedly shown to be well tolerated by humans(37)

While CBD is considered generally safe, as the 2011 review in the Current Drug Safety Journal suggests, the long-term effects are yet to be examined further(38).

How to Take Antifungal CBD Oil 

There are different types of fungal diseases, says the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The treatment varies with each type, depending on the particular area of the body that was affected(39)

Fungal nail infections are among the most common fungal diseases. The toenail fungus can cause a nail infection where the infected nail becomes discolored, thick, and more likely to break and crack. 

Other types of fungal disease are vaginal candidiasis and Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus.

For CBD to be effective, it must go where it is needed. Thus, it is essential to know the location of the CBD’s target.

A consultation with a doctor can help determine the type of fungal infection that one has, and this information can help an individual set a specific target for the CBD.

Full-spectrum CBD oil works best in fighting fungal infections as it contains all phytonutrients from hemp, including trace amounts of THC, terpenes, flavonoids, and essential oils.

One of the fastest ways to feel the effects of CBD is to vape it. However, if vaping is not an option, there are still other methods.

If the target is close to the skin or a mucous membrane, like the vagina, one could first try a localized CBD product, such as a topical or suppository. These products deliver the highest concentration of CBD in a specific area.

Topicals like CBD creams, lotions, and patches may also be applied to a target area on the skin.

In cases of inflammation, CBD needs to travel through the bloodstream to reach its target. Oral CBD products like tinctures are best for this purpose. Sublingual (under the tongue) absorption is an efficient method of taking CBD oil. 

In a 2010 review, published in the International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, researchers found that peak blood levels of most substances given sublingually are achieved in 10 to 15 minutes, which is faster than when those same drugs are ingested orally(40).

Gummies and gelcaps containing full-spectrum CBD oil may also be taken orally. 

Conclusion

Pharmaceutical antifungal options, while useful, can be invasive for some people and lead to undesirable effects on the human body. 

Sought by those who prefer a safer and more natural remedy, CBD may provide relief from fungal infections without the adverse side effects that typically come with the use of conventional antifungals.

Medical cannabis, also called medical marijuana, is a term for derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant used to relieve severe and chronic symptoms(41). 

To fight fungal infections, choose a full-spectrum or broad-spectrum CBD oil product that contains all the beneficial terpenes and other cannabinoids. 

Exploring medical cannabis means becoming a highly educated consumer. Consulting with a trusted medical practitioner experienced with cannabis use is the best course of action for anyone looking to try CBD for the first time or include CBD in their current regimen.


  1. Russo EB. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;163(7):1344–1364. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01238.x.
  2. Gallily R, Yekhtin Z, Hanuš LO. The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Terpenoids from Cannabis. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2018;3(1):282–290. Published 2018 Dec 26. doi:10.1089/can.2018.0014.
  3. Nazzaro F, Fratianni F, Coppola R, Feo V. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2017;10(4):86. Published 2017 Nov 2. doi:10.3390/ph10040086.
  4. Ghannoum MA, Rice LB. Antifungal agents: mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and correlation of these mechanisms with bacterial resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12(4):501–517.
  5. NHS Choices. (2020, Feb 3). Antifungal medicines. Retrieved from https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/antifungal-medicines/.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Russo EB. op. cit.
  8. Gallily R, Yekhtin Z, Hanuš LO. The Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Terpenoids from Cannabis. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2018;3(1):282–290. Published 2018 Dec 26. doi:10.1089/can.2018.0014.
  9. Andre CM, Hausman JF, Guerriero G. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:19. Published 2016 Feb 4. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00019.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Cavaleiro C, Pinto E,  Gonçalves MJ, Salgueiro L. 21 April 2006. Antifungal activity of Juniperus essential oils against dermatophyte, Aspergillus and Candida strains. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02862.x.
  12. Neta MCS, Vittorazzi C, […], and Scherer R. Effects of β-caryophyllene and Murraya paniculata essential oil in the murine hepatoma cells and in the bacteria and fungi 24-h time–kill curve studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2016.1254251.
  13. InformedHealth.org [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. What is an inflammation? 2010 Nov 23 [Updated 2018 Feb 22]. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279298/.
  14. Oláh A, Tóth BI, Borbíró I, et al. Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(9):3713–3724. doi:10.1172/JCI64628; Ribeiro A, Ferraz-de-Paula V, […], and Palermo-Neto J. Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoid, decreases inflammation in a murine model of acute lung injury: role for the adenosine A(2A) receptor. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012 Mar 5;678(1-3):78-85. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.12.043. Epub 2012 Jan 12.
  15. Booz GW. Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;51(5):1054–1061. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.01.007.
  16. Detoni M. (2015, Sept. 20). What do humans and fungi have in common? Retrieved from https://socratic.org/questions/what-do-humans-and-fungi-have-in-common.
  17. Pan, Jiao & Hu, Cuiting & Yu, Jae-Hyuk. (2018). Lipid Biosynthesis as an Antifungal Target. Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland). 4. 10.3390/jof4020050.
  18. Rodrigues ML. The Multifunctional Fungal Ergosterol. mBio. 2018;9(5):e01755-18. Published 2018 Sep 18. doi:10.1128/mBio.01755-18.
  19. Cookson, B. T., and M. A. Brennan. 2001. Pro-inflammatory programmed cell death. Trends Microbiol. 9:113-114.
  20. Mazu TK, Bricker BA, Flores-Rozas H, Ablordeppey SY. The Mechanistic Targets of Antifungal Agents: An Overview. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2016;16(7):555–578. doi:10.2174/1389557516666160118112103.
  21. Radwan MM, Elsohly MA, Slade D, Ahmed SA, Khan IA, Ross SA. Biologically active cannabinoids from high-potency Cannabis sativa. J Nat Prod. 2009;72(5):906–911. doi:10.1021/np900067k.
  22. Ghannoum MA, Rice LB. Antifungal agents: mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and correlation of these mechanisms with bacterial resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1999;12(4):501–517.
  23. Nora Volkow. NIDA. Researching Marijuana for Therapeutic Purposes: The Potential Promise of Cannabidiol (CBD). National Institute on Drug Abuse website. https://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/noras-blog/2015/07/researching-marijuana-therapeutic-purposes-potential-promise-cannabidiol-cbd. July 20, 2015. Accessed January 31, 2020.
  24. Expert Committee on Drug Dependence Fortieth Meeting. Cannabidiol (CBD) Critical Review Report. June 2018.
  25. Bauer, B. (2018, Dec 20). What are the benefits of CBD — and is it safe to use? Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/expert-answers/is-cbd-safe-and-effective/faq-20446700.
  26. Brown JD, Winterstein AG. Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug-Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer Cannabidiol (CBD) Use. J Clin Med. 2019;8(7):989. Published 2019 Jul 8. doi:10.3390/jcm8070989.
  27. Peachman, RB. (2019, Feb 26). Can CBD Help Your Child? Retrieved from https://www.consumerreports.org/cbd/can-cbd-help-your-child/.
  28. Bonn-Miller MO, Loflin MJE, Thomas BF, Marcu JP, Hyke T, Vandrey R. Labeling Accuracy of Cannabidiol Extracts Sold Online. JAMA. 2017;318(17):1708–1709. doi:10.1001/jama.2017.11909.
  29. Nazzaro F, Fratianni F, Coppola R, Feo V. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2017;10(4):86. Published 2017 Nov 2. doi:10.3390/ph10040086.
  30. Edris AE. Pharmaceutical and therapeutic potentials of essential oils and their individual volatile constituents: a review. Phytother Res. 2007 Apr;21(4):308-23. DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2072.
  31. Nazzaro F, Fratianni F, Coppola R, Feo V. Essential Oils and Antifungal Activity. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2017;10(4):86. Published 2017 Nov 2. doi:10.3390/ph10040086.
  32. Powers CN, Osier JL, McFeeters RL, et al. Antifungal and Cytotoxic Activities of Sixty Commercially-Available Essential Oils. Molecules. 2018;23(7):1549. Published 2018 Jun 27. doi:10.3390/molecules23071549.
  33. Iffland K, Grotenhermen F. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies. Cannabis Cannabinoid Res. 2017;2(1):139–154. Published 2017 Jun 1. doi:10.1089/can.2016.0034.
  34. Khan, A. (2019, June 23). Cannabidiol is a Powerful New Antibiotic. Retrieved from https://www.asm.org/Press-Releases/2019/June/Cannabidiol-is-a-Powerful-New-Antibiotic.
  35. Maghu S, Desai VD, Sharma R. Comparison of efficacy of alternative medicine with allopathy in treatment of oral fungal infection. J Tradit Complement Med. 2015;6(1):62–65. Published 2015 Mar 18. doi:10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.11.023.
  36. Grinspoon, P. (2018, Aug 24). Cannabidiol (CBD) — what we know and what we don’t. Retrieved from https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476.
  37. Iffland K. op. cit.
  38. Bergamaschi MM, Queiroz RH, Zuardi AW, Crippa JA. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Curr Drug Saf. 2011 Sep 1;6(4):237-49.
  39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019, May 6). Types of Fungal Diseases. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/fungal/diseases/index.html.
  40. Narang, N. and Sharma, J. (2010, Dec 08). Sublingual Mucosa as A Route for Systemic Drug Delivery. https://innovareacademics.in/journal/ijpps/Vol3Suppl2/1092.pdf.
  41. Mayo Clinic. (2019, Nov 27). Medical Marijuana. Retrieved from https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/consumer-health/in-depth/medical-marijuana/art-20137855.
Susan Lindeman

Latest posts by Susan Lindeman (see all)

What are Fungi?

Fungi can be single-celled or multicellular organisms. They are found in almost any habitat, but most live in the soil or on plant materials. A classification of fungi, called the decomposers, grows in the soil or on dead plant matter.

Decomposers play a crucial role in the cycling of carbon and other elements. Some fungi are parasites of plants causing diseases such as mildews, scabs, and rusts. 

In crops, fungal diseases can lead to substantial financial loss for the farmer. A small number of fungi can also cause diseases in animals. In humans, these diseases include athletes’ foot, ringworm, and thrush.

How Antifungal Medications Work

Bacteria are prokaryotes or single-celled organisms with no nucleus. Meanwhile, fungi are eukaryotes or organisms with a DNA-containing nucleus. 

All plants and animals are eukaryotes. With this type of organism, it is challenging to kill fungal cells without causing harm or damage to human cells. 

Cholesterol is essential to human health and cellular membranes. Cholesterol acts like cement, giving cellular membrane integrity and flexibility. Similarly, a compound called ergosterol maintains the structure of the cell membrane in fungal cells.

Fungal infections can vary, from being disconcerting to being fatal. Antifungal medications work by preventing the generation of ergosterol. Almost all antifungal medications in the market work the same way. 

Ergosterol is necessary for microbes, but not cholesterol. Inhibiting the production of ergosterol prevents the cell membranes of fungi from developing, thereby causing fungal death without harming the human host. 

CBD, CBC, and CBG regulate the expression of genes that are related to immunity and the metabolism of cholesterol and ergosterol. Researchers now focus on the differences between cholesterol and ergosterol, and how they can be exploited by combining their traits with that of broad-spectrum cannabinoids.

Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Cannabis

Many people refer to cannabis as “weed” because of its resilience to thrive in abundance with very little help needed. The plant is sturdy because it has built up some strong defenses against bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

This evolutionary function of cannabis has to do with protecting the plant’s leaves and flowers from bacterial or fungal infections. Hence, cannabis and hemp (a cannabis strain with less than 0.3% THC) crops are preferred by farmers and botanists for the plants’ independence from pesticides and other dangerous chemicals that can also poison the soil.

Moreover, certain strains of cannabis contain the terpene caryophyllene oxide, which is a fierce adversary of fungi. Caryophyllene oxide is the specific chemical that sniffer dogs respond to in cannabis. This terpene can also prevent fungal growth in both cannabis plants and humans.

Almost every cannabinoid is a potent anti-inflammatory, like THC. Meanwhile, other cannabinoids share similar characteristics, from the potential to reduce cancer growth to the ability to enhance brain development. One of the advantageous traits of cannabis that is common in other cannabinoids is the antimicrobial characteristic that both CBG and CBC possess.

CBD, CBG, and CBC also have exhibited exceptional antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antifungal benefits of CBD have been known since the 1980s, although little research has been done since that time. 

Antibiotic Benefits of CBD

CBD is already being researched further and currently used for anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy, and pain. However, CBD may also be the next antidote for resistant infections, a new study suggests, calling cannabidiol “a powerful new antibiotic.”

This piece of information is useful, as antibiotic resistance reaches alarmingly high levels, according to the World Health Organization.

The researchers examined CBD against different types of bacteria, including those bacteria that have become resistant to the commonly used antibiotics. Dr. Mark Blaskovich, a research officer at the Centre for Superbug Solutions at the Institute for Molecular Bioscience in Australia, explained CBD’s appeal. He said the combination of CBD’s intrinsic antimicrobial activity and its ability to reduce damage caused by the inflammatory response to infections is attractive. 

The research involves some tests done in test tubes and animal models. Researchers initially investigated CBD’s ability to terminate bacteria. In every case, CBD had an almost identical potency to that of conventional antibiotics. 

The scientists also examined CBD against some strains of streptococcus (causes strep throat) and staphylococcus (causes skin infections).

They tested how effective CBD was compared to standard antibiotics, such as vancomycin and daptomycin. The results showed that CBD destroyed the bacteria within 3 hours, which is fast. Meanwhile, vancomycin kills bacteria within 6 to 8 hours.

The research also established that CBD is effective against gram-positive bacteria but not gram-negative. Gram-positive bacteria cause severe skin infections and pneumonia. 

Gram-negative bacteria include E. coli, which causes urinary tract infections and diarrhea. Salmonella, which is found in undercooked foods, is another example of gram-negative bacteria. 

However, the researchers could not explain how CBD fights infection. They believe that CBD works by damaging the outer membrane of the bacteria to make it leaky. 

Still, Dr. Blaskovich, believes that CBD operates on an entirely new mechanism of action. The results are encouraging, but still in the early stages. As the study needs to be followed up on, Dr. Blaskovich cautions people to keep the pieces of information in context.

CBD Oil or Hemp Oil?

People often use the term “hemp oil” to refer to the CBD-rich product extracted from the hemp plant’s flowers and leaves, which is essentially CBD oil. However, the term is also used to refer to hemp seed oil that contains no CBD.

Although hemp seed oil is not CBD oil, the hemp plant’s flowers and leaves are one source of CBD oil. CBD oil is available in different varieties, such as full-spectrum (oil derived from the whole plant), THC-free distillate, and CBD isolates.

Hemp Oil as An Antibacterial Agent

Results from a study suggest that hemp oil’s antibacterial properties inhibited the actions of several types of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus. 

Staphylococcus aureus is a harmful bacterium that could cause pneumonia and infections of the skin, bone, and heart valves.

Hemp Oil Uses for Skin, Nails, and Hair

Hemp is an often misconstrued and underutilized plant. Although hemp contains minuscule traces of the psychoactive compound THC, the plant is abundant in CBD. 

CBD is a cannabinoid that is regarded for its potential benefits against a variety of health concerns.

Hemp Oil for Skin

Hemp oil may also be used for a more even complexion. Massaging a bit of hemp oil into acne-prone skin could help to neutralize the sebum that causes breakouts. Hemp oil can also improve skin moisture. Use hemp oil as a natural moisturizer or makeup remover.

Apply the oil directly to dry, cracked, or chafed skin to make it stronger and more supple, as well as restore softness. As an anti-inflammatory, hemp oil may also help in the healing of minor cuts and scrapes.

Hemp Oil for Nails 

For nail repair, apply some hemp oil on nails and cuticles, or enjoy a hemp oil foot bath. French Girl Organics, a brand of cuticle oil that contains hemp oil, is an enriching blend of extracts and essential oils to improve and maintain the health of nails and cuticles.

Hemp Oil for Athlete’s Foot

While CBD could also have antifungal properties when getting rid of athlete’s foot, full-spectrum hemp oil or full-plant cannabis is the ideal way to achieve excellent results. 

Terminating fungus is complicated because the cells contain a nucleus like all plants and animals do. Destroying the fungus could result in adverse side effects because of its similar biology to the cells in the human body.

However, hemp oil has the potential to accomplish the difficult task of harming the fungus without damaging the cells. Individuals with fungal infections should take full-spectrum oil orally. They can also combat the infection by using the same tincture directly onto the skin to quickly impact the source of the problem. 

Hemp Oil for Hair

One of the most desired elements of hemp oil is essential fatty acids or EFAs. EFAs help restore hair’s natural softness, shine, and strength. One may also use hemp oil as a natural hair conditioner. 

Allow a small quantity of hemp oil to soak on hair and scalp for 10 to 20 minutes, and then wash as usual. Also, due to hemp oil’s high EFA content, hemp oil is an ideal supplement to boost one’s detox efforts.

Manitoba Harvest Hemp Oil Essential Fatty Acid Supplement 1000 mg (10g Omega 3 and Omega 6 essential fatty acids per serving, 120 soft gels, zero CBD) is a favorite brand among hemp oil enthusiasts. 

Available at Amazon, this product is made from hemp oil that is cold-pressed from hemp seed grown without using herbicides or pesticides.

Hemp Oil to Calm Inflammation

Gamma-linolenic acid, a natural constituent of hemp oil, reduces inflammation. This component makes hemp oil an excellent product to combat red or irritated skin. Hemp oil can also be used to help alleviate inflammation of the scalp.

Understanding The Endocannabinoid System

Taxonomic investigations disclosed that the endocannabinoid system revolutionized over 500 million years ago. The endocannabinoid system is present in all vertebrates, and its principal function is to maintain homeostasis in the body.

Homeostasis is the natural harmony that is induced in response to changes in the environment. The human body naturally produces endocannabinoids, which are cannabis-like molecules. Scientists discovered that cannabis generated its effects on the body by mimicking the body’s endocannabinoids. 

Although initial investigation suggested that endocannabinoid receptors are only situated in the brain and nerves, further research revealed otherwise. Scientists later found that the receptors are also present throughout the body, including the skin, bone, heart, blood vessels, liver, fat tissue, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract. 

The endocannabinoid system is engaged in a wide range of body functions and processes, including appetite, sleep, memory, metabolism, mood, and immune function.

CB1 and CB2 Receptors

Trichomes, the resinous glands that hold the medicinal components of the plant Cannabis sativa, are situated at the plant’s surface. The female flower is the area with the highest density. 

Within the trichomes are a group of plant chemicals called phytocannabinoids or cannabinoids. Regardless of its origin or structure, a cannabinoid is any chemical substance that links the cannabinoid receptors of the body and brain. 

When extracted from the plant and consumed, phytocannabinoids interrelate with the receptors in the body to produce several psychoactive and therapeutic effects. 

Plants and animals generate their cannabinoids. Those produced inside the body of mammals, including humans, are called endocannabinoids.

It was only in 1988 when the first cannabinoid receptors known as CB1 were discovered in humans. CB1 is the receptor that receives THC, thereby triggering THC’s euphoric characteristics. 

Also, CB1 functions as a regulator for reward mechanism, appetite, thermoregulation, immune function, cognition, muscle control, interocular pressure, emesis (vomiting and nausea), and pain. 

A few years later, a second cannabinoid receptor, CB2, was found in the white blood cells. As it was discovered with the highest concentrations in the natural killer cells, its role was believed to be related to cell proliferation, immune function, inflammation, and pain.

Consequently, more opportunities open to alternative ways of managing and treating diseases as scientists gain more understanding of the cannabis plant and how it may impact the systems of the human body. 

An increasing number of people are turning to cannabis as a natural remedy for ailments and disorders.

Cannabinoids and Their Therapeutic Properties

The cannabis plant naturally produces at least 80 cannabinoids. The two main cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). 

THC and CBD are found in both marijuana and hemp. Medical marijuana, or medical cannabis, contains more THC than hemp. Meanwhile, a hemp plant contains CBD in significant quantities. Given the rising popularity of medical cannabis, breeders are now cultivating strains with higher CBD to THC ratios to reduce psychoactive side effects.

A deeper understanding of the six most common cannabinoids would help one gain appreciation of the curative characteristics that he or she may derive from the cannabis plant.

THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol)

THC’s most outstanding characteristic is the ability to induce a sense of euphoria to anyone who consumes it. THC works by bonding with the cannabinoid receptors located in the brain and central nervous system to generate the intoxicating effects. 

However, aside from the hallucinogenic properties, THC is also known as a useful relief to pain and inflammation. Also, THC is antispasmodic, neuroprotective, antioxidant, and muscle relaxant. This powerful compound possesses 20 times the anti-inflammatory potency of aspirin.

In clinical trials, researchers found that THC can reduce levels of vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF in brain cancer cells. A reduction in VEGF is an indication that brain cancer tumors would be unable to develop and proliferate. The results of the study represent THC’s potential benefit for the treatment of brain cancer.

THC may help treat medical conditions, such as chronic pain, multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), Tourette’s syndrome, Huntington’s disease, and glaucoma. THC also helps provide relief to symptoms related to chemotherapy and HIV/AIDS.

CBD (Cannabidiol)

CBD is the second most abundant cannabinoid in medical marijuana and most prevalent in hemp plants. CBD-rich cannabis provides impressive therapeutic advantages without the THC-induced euphoria. 

Scientists believe that CBD and THC work in synergy. They are more potent when they are both present at therapeutic levels than they are alone. CBD’s favorable quality is its ability to counterbalance the sedative effect of THC. CBD also neutralizes the symptoms of anxiety, tachycardia (heart rhythm disorder), and hunger.

CBD is as effective and versatile as THC in responding to many debilitating conditions such as epilepsy, diabetes, antibiotic-resistant infections, rheumatoid arthritis, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol addiction, neurological disorders, and cancer. 

CBD does not bind well with CB1 and CB2 receptors but stimulates both receptors instead. Thus, CBD works in the body through different pathways. 

As a negative modulator of the CB1 receptors, CBD lowers the maximum effect of THC’s psychoactivity. With THC’s potency altered, CBD users appreciate the health benefits of CBD-rich cannabis without the “high” associated with THC-dominant products.

CBN (Cannabinol) 

Cannabinol (CBN) functions as a sedative and anxiolytic (anti-anxiety agent). CBN is twice as therapeutic as diazepam, a sedative, but without the undesirable side effects. 

Cannabinol is found in substantial amounts in aged cannabis, and in minimal quantities in fresh or cured cannabis. CBN is created from THC when THC is oxidized or exposed to oxygen for an extended period.

Scientific research on the effects of CBN on the human body is limited, as most clinical studies are done on animals. Meanwhile, people notice that when they consume older cannabis, they feel sleepy and assume that it is because of CBN. 

However, scientists believe that the combination of CBN and THC is what induces the sedative effect. Older cannabis, which is high in CBN, is also rich in sedating terpenes. These terpenes could be the chemical that makes those who consume older cannabis feel sleepy.

Some brands offer tinctures with isolated CBN and market them as sleep aids. Still, CBN alone is non-intoxicating. However, when it is used in combination with THC, CBN can increase the euphoric effects of THC. 

Also, CBN increases testosterone production and plasma concentration of particular hormones. With CBN’s higher affinity for the CB2 receptors, this cannabinoid could have more impact on the immune system than on the central nervous system.

CBN is most beneficial when used as an antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, appetite stimulant, anti-insomnia therapy, and anti-convulsive. It also promotes the growth of bone cells.

CBC (Cannabichromene)

Cannabichromene is a phytocannabinoid in hemp and is often found as having the second-highest concentration after CBD. CBC is found only in tropical strains of cannabis and is believed to be superior to THC and CBD in its antifungal and antibacterial quality. 

Although the CBC molecule is structurally similar to that of CBD, they are different in terms of the atomic structure. Like THC and CBD, CBC has the potential to promote neurogenesis by increasing the sustainability of developing brain cells. CBC is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, which means one derives the benefits of consuming it without feeling high. 

CBC battles inflammation without activating the endocannabinoid receptors in the body. Thus, the therapeutic characteristics of CBC substantially increase when combined with other cannabinoids like THC or CBD. 

THC and CBD activate endocannabinoid receptors in the brain and throughout the body.  CBC is a significant factor in the anti-cancer and anti-tumor capabilities of cannabis. CBC may also help relieve symptoms associated with irritable bowel syndrome, chronic postoperative pain, neuropathy, and Crohn’s disease.

CBG (Cannabigerol)

Cannabigerol is an excellent antibacterial that is superior to CBD, THC, and CBC. CBG is the most potent cannabinoid against fungi, gram-positive bacteria, and mycobacteria. 

Mycobacteria is a type of germ that causes tuberculosis and leprosy. CBG is the biosynthetic precursor to THC, CBD, and CBC, meaning the body converts CBG into another type of cannabinoid. 

Hence, CBG is often referred to as the mother or stem cell of cannabinoids. This unique characteristic makes CBG an object of interest for researchers and consumers of cannabis products.

However, most hemp plants only contain minuscule amounts of CBG isolate. Hence, manufacturers find that CBG isolates are notoriously expensive to produce, calling it the Rolls Royce of cannabinoids. 

Despite CBG’s therapeutic appeal, its price is prohibitive to most people. Thus, some growers are working on a hemp strain that could maximize CBG without CBD and THC. Today, there are only a few farms in the United States that cultivate hemp strains to yield high levels of CBG specifically.

CBG has antibacterial properties and has been found to decrease the size of tumors. CBG is also an excellent remedy for relieving inflammatory bowel disease symptoms, reduction of intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. CBG counters nausea, stimulates appetite, and reduces anxiety levels.

THCV (Tetrahydrocannabivarin) 

Tetrahydrocannabivarin is a type of cannabinoid contained in indica and afagnica varieties of cannabis plants. Although THCV is not a primary cannabinoid, it has two important uses. Research suggests that THCV can be used as a biochemical marker for illicit drug use because THCV is not a metabolite of Marinol, a synthetic THC. 

The study showed that THCV is detected in urine samples collected from human subjects only after the ingestion of marijuana and not after the ingestion of Marinol. Thus, THCV is readily detectable in drug testing. Another essential use of THCV is for the treatment of migraine headaches, as explained in a review.

THCV, as the name suggests, is similar to THC in molecular structure and psychoactive properties. However, THCV provides a wide range of pronounced effects when used. THCV is an appetite suppressant, which is good news for consumers focused on weight loss. Meanwhile, patients dealing with eating disorders should avoid THCV.

THCV can benefit those with diabetes, regulate blood sugar levels, and reduce insulin resistance. THCV may help lessen panic attacks and anxiety attacks in PTSD patients. 

THCV can relieve symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease, such as tremors, motor control, and brain lesions, although research is in progress. Because THCV is found to promote the growth of new bone cells, this cannabinoid may also help with osteoporosis and other bone-related conditions.

Most products in the market contain only traces and undetectable amounts of THCV, making it difficult for people to achieve the desired therapeutic effect. Hopefully, more THCV-rich products would be introduced alongside THCV’s growing popularity.

Terpenes and Cannabinoids

Terpenes, or isoprenoids, are responsible for the distinct essence of cannabis. Terpenes are found in almost every species of plant. Their molecules consist of repeating units of a compound called isoprene. 

Humans respond to the vast majority of smells or odors produced by terpenes. The biological activities that involve terpenes include reduced inflammation, less sensitivity to pain, and decreased levels of anxiety. 

All of these characteristics are common between terpenes and cannabinoids. Both compounds share a common biochemical precursor, which enables them to bind with receptors and enzymes.

In the plant kingdom, terpenes assume the crucial role of a protector. Terpenes protect plants from environmental stresses, obviate insect predation, and act as building blocks for more complex molecules like cannabinoids. 

Most terpenes synergize with other varieties of terpenes, and some either stimulate or inhibit the formation of different compounds within a plant. Understanding how terpenes perform their functions allows scientists to manipulate cannabinoids to achieve desired ratios.

Terpenes may not be as prominent as the major cannabinoids. However, terpenes are contributory to the psychoactive and physiological effects of cannabis. The interrelation between terpenes and cannabinoids, known as the entourage effect, ultimately distinguishes one strain of cannabis from another.

ß-caryophyllene 

ß-caryophyllene is a terpene contained in the essential oils of many plants like rosemary, black pepper, clove, hops, and cannabis. Like all terpenes, ß-caryophyllene contributes to the intense aromatic qualities of the plants. ß-caryophyllene is found in substantial quantities in the cannabis plant and contributes to the entourage effect.

Terpenes and cannabinoids both have their therapeutic properties. They can be anti-anxiety, antibacterial, antifungal, antiemetic (counters vomiting and nausea), analgesic (pain reliever), anti-inflammatory, anti-seizure, and anti-anxiety. 

ß-caryophyllene or BCP is one of these terpenes that acts as a cannabinoid by binding to the CB2 receptors in the body.

ß-caryophyllene is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a food additive, as well as a dietary cannabinoid. Because of ß-caryophyllene’s unique fragrance, some cosmetic products include this terpene in the ingredients. Many common foods, like black pepper, oregano, and cinnamon, also have ß-caryophyllene. 

ß-caryophyllene and Hemp Root 

Beta-caryophyllene is an integral component of cannabis essential oil and can be found in the root of hemp plants, along with other alkaloids. Many people who promote the therapeutic values of cannabis give credit only to hemp’s flowers, leaves, stems, and oils, and not the roots. Growers often give little attention to the roots besides making sure that the plants thrive in their surroundings.

Still, discounting the roots as contributory to hemp’s whole-plant therapies is a mistake. The roots contain many healing benefits that have been utilized for centuries. 

The root extracts were used as potent additives to poultices and salves for the relief of burns and wounds. Oil from hemp root can be rubbed on sore and aching joints to reduce pain and inflammation, promote accelerated healing, and reduce scar formation. 

Hemp root oil may also be beneficial in cases of dermatitis, eczema, rashes, and insect stings and bites. The oil has a warm and calming effect, making it an excellent massage oil.

Other Medical Benefits of CBD

CBD is often administered in conjunction with other medications. Despite the commonly reported side effects, such as tiredness, diarrhea, and changes in appetite or weight, researchers believe that CBD could improve patients’ compliance and adherence to treatment.

Manufacturers of CBD products often market CBD oil as a potential natural remedy for a variety of ailments and disorders. Although more research is still needed to substantiate therapeutic claims, many people believe that CBD could be a valuable addition to their health regimen. CBD may be used as a preventative medication or a potent antidote to combat symptoms of certain diseases. 

CBD vs. Anxiety

A study found that CBD decreases anxiety levels in individuals with a social anxiety disorder (SAD). The brain scans indicated that CBD regulates chemical uptake and blood flow in the brain. CBD can help people with anxiety disorders by impacting the CB1 receptors in the brain and modifying the signaling process of serotonin receptors.

CBD vs.  Autism Spectrum Disorder

A study showed that CBD has a success rate of 80% in dealing with problematic behavior in children with autism. Another research demonstrated that CBD helped with resolving behavioral and communication problems, as well as anxiety and stress, in children with ASD.

CBD vs. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Research established the crucial role of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) regulating body functions related to memory and emotions. CBD oil, when consumed, activates receptors in the ECS. Thus, CBD helps relieve symptoms of PTSD. CBD can alter memory, induce a sense of well-being or happiness, and reduce the recollection of traumatic memories.

CBD vs. Sleep Disorders and Insomnia

CBD can help improve sleep quality by interrelating with receptors in the ECS. CBD oil, in and of itself, does not induce sleep. However, studies indicate that CBD has the potential to counter insomnia by relieving symptoms that cause difficulty in sleeping, such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain.

CBD vs. Schizophrenia

A double-blind, randomized clinical trial examined CBD’s potency as an antipsychotic for patients with schizophrenia. CBD was compared with another antipsychotic, and the results showed that CBD was safe and led to a significant improvement in the patients’ condition.

CBD vs. Addiction

In a study, CBD demonstrated its ability to help reduce cravings in patients recovering from addiction. CBD also managed to lower their stress levels. The researchers of another study on heroin addiction revealed that CBD has the potential to help individuals with heroin use disorder.

CBD vs. Fibromyalgia

A clinical review was conducted in 2016, and researchers found evidence that cannabinoids may benefit people with fibromyalgia. CBD helps patients manage the symptoms of the disease, which may include fatigue, painful joints, sleep problems, morning stiffness, and memory problems (sometimes referred to as fibro fog).

CBD vs. Arthritis

Many people favor CBD’s versatility as it can either be ingested, smoked, or used topically. In a clinical experiment, researchers applied CBD cream on animals with arthritis. The results demonstrated that topical administration of CBD may help relieve arthritis pain and inflammation without adverse side effects.

CBD vs. Recovery from Sports Injuries

CBD may provide substantial help to athletes who are recovering from serious sports injuries, or people who are recovering from surgery. CBD helps to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, improve sleep quality, and optimize concentration. 

Studies show that CBD blocks the reuptake of adenosine to optimize sleep quality. The human body mostly regenerates damaged muscle fiber during sleep. 

CBD vs. Eczema

A study demonstrates the crucial role of the endocannabinoid system in regulating skin functions. CBD interacts with CB1 receptors and keratinocytes to help maintain the skin’s permeability barrier and epidermal integrity, as well as protect the skin from allergic inflammation.

CBD vs. Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Multiple sclerosis is a disease that impacts the central nervous system, especially the spinal cord, brain, and optic nerves. CBD has the potential to help alleviate the symptoms of MS, which include pains and spasms, dizziness, bladder issues, vision problems, lethargy, and cognitive problems. 

A study concluded that CBD is beneficial in alleviating pain and sleep issues in patients with multiple sclerosis. 

CBD vs. Obesity 

Overstimulation of the CB1 receptors in the fat tissues in the body could promote weight gain. CBD inhibits the activation of CB1 receptors, which then results in a reduced risk of obesity. 

Research suggests that the endocannabinoid system and CBD can help combat obesity by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism and converting fat tissue into caloric expenditure. 

CBD vs. Gastrointestinal and Digestive Disorders

A study published in the Journal of Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research states that the ECS helps with immune response, gut permeability, gut motility, interaction with microbiota, hunger, and brain-mediated fat intake. CBD can also help alleviate symptoms of gut disorder, including bloating and nausea.

CBD vs. Cardiovascular Diseases

CBD could efficiently reduce blood pressure. Research shows that CBD could alter the way the body responds to anxiety and stress. Stress causes many health issues related to elevated blood pressure. 

Along with poor eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle, stress could lead to heart disease and heart attack. The body releases cortisol when it is under stress. By lowering cortisol, CBD helps maintain blood pressure levels within the healthy range.

CBD vs. Candidiasis

CBD’s natural antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory properties make it a potential medication to help treat candidiasis. One famous brand of CBD product that is specially formulated to target yeast overgrowth is Candida (CD – 1) Feminized Seeds from Medical Marijuana Genetics. Its CBD levels are between 20.6% and 10.9%, while its THC remains below 1%.  

The balance between CBD and THC is kept more consistent than any similar strain. This product provides a 20:1 CBD:THC ratio, the highest CBD, and the lowest THC content of any strain sold in the market today. 

Legal Issues

When the Farm Bill passed in 2014, the cultivation of hemp became legal. Hemp contains less than 0.3% THC. Although hemp contains THC, the THC content is too minimal to make it psychoactive. 

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not regulate CBD. Its legality depends on its source. Many manufacturers of CBD products claim that their CBD is hemp-derived. 

CBD that is extracted from hemp is legal. CBD is considered illegal if extracted from other parts of the marijuana plant.

The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) issued a statement to clarify the confusion. They said that cannabinoids, such as THC, CBN, and CBD, are found in the parts of the cannabis plant that fall within the CSA (Controlled Substances Act) definition of marijuana. These cannabinoids are found in the flowering tops, resin, and leaves of marijuana. 

Given the current definition by the federal government and the DEA, CBD is only legal if it is extracted from other areas of the plant that do not qualify as marijuana.

Most CBD products are entirely free of THC. However, there are full-spectrum products that contain trace amounts of THC. In general, CBD that contains less than 0.3% of THC is considered legal across the United States.

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