How Does CBD Oil Help With Sciatica Nerve Pain?

  • The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties(1) of CBD show potential in providing pain relief to sciatica patients, a painful sensation caused by a compressed sciatic nerve.
  • Research has found sciatica pain to be partly neuropathic pain(2). Meanwhile, a study conducted by the Massachusetts General Hospital found that patients with chronic sciatica have inflammation in the central nervous system(3).
  • A significant 2008 study found that CBD demonstrates capabilities for relieving both neuropathic and inflammatory pain in various patients(4).
  • However, a research study utilizing CBD oil to relieve sciatic pain has yet to be conducted.
  • Patients are advised to first consult with medical professionals before the initial administration of CBD oil.

Best CBD Oil for Sciatica

Editor's Pick

Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil

Specifically formulated to be more palatable to CBD users
Spruce 750mg Lab Grade CBD Oil Bottle
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
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  • Summary

    Each bottle of the 750mg CBD oil tincture contains 25mg of CBD per dropper full. The oil is peppermint flavor to mask any unpleasant tastes related to CBD.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Mid-strength
    •  Natural peppermint flavor
    •  Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA & North Carolina, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Organic Hemp Seed Oil, Full Spectrum CBD Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    Moonshine extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    750 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Seed Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    25mg of CBD per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range $89 ($75.65 for subscriptions, 15% discount from regular price)
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.12/mg ($0.10/mg with subscription)
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-4 business days (first class USPS)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Organic, Non-GMO, no pesticides, no herbicides, no solvents or chemical fertilizers, No preservatives or sweeteners
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for New CBD users
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Best Organic

NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil

Perfect for anyone who are looking for CBD products that promote a healthy body and mind.
NuLeaf Naturals 900mg Full Spectrum Hemp CBD Oil
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    Natural remedy for various illnesses. NuLeaf Naturals’ CBD oil is a whole-plant extract containing a full spectrum of naturally occurring synergistic cannabinoids and terpenes.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Pure CBD hemp
    •  All natural
    •  Approximately 300 drops total
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 20% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS20
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Full Spectrum Hemp Extract, Organic Virgin Hemp Seed Oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Full Spectrum CBD
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 Method
    How to take it Under the tongue for approximately 30 seconds before swallowing
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    900mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Hemp Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    60mg per dropper full (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Natural
    Price Range $99 - $434
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    $0.08 - $0.13
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-3 Days via USPS
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants No additives or preservatives, Non-GMO, NO herbicides, pesticides, or chemical fertilizers
    Allergens Not specified
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Health-conscious persons
    Countries served USA (all 50 states) and over 40 countries including Australia, Azerbaijan, Beliza, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Japan, Latvia, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macao, Malaysia, Malta, Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and many more.
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Best Customer Service

Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil

4x the strength of a regular cbd oil
Sabaidee Super Good Vibes CBD Oil
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
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    Super Good Vibes CBD Oil provides the purest and highest quality Cannabidiol (CBD) on the market as well as other high quality phytocannabinoids, terpenes, vitamins, omega fatty acids, trace minerals, and other beneficial for your health elements, which all work together to provide benefits.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Extra strong
    •  Significant benefits with just a few drops
    •  100% Natural ingredients
    •  No other flavors
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: CBDCLINICALS15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Colorado, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), Coconut Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) Oil, Peppermint oil
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2-extraction
    How to take it Using 1-3 servings per day as needed is a good start to determine how much you need
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    1000 mg per bottle
    Carrier Oil Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    33.5 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Contains 0.3% THC but there is a chance you may test positive for marijuana
    Flavours Peppermint
    Price Range Single Bottle - $119.95, 2-Pack - $109.97 each, 3-Pack - $98.31 each, 6-Pack - $79.99 each
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    Single bottle - $0.010, 2-Pack - $0.011, 3-Pack - $0.009, 6-Pack - $0.007
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    3-5 Business days
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants Contaminant-free
    Allergens Vegan and Gluten-free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for Patients who are looking for serious CBD oil support
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
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Natural Alternative

cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures

Uses USA hemp that is grown on non-GMO farms, and is both vegan and gluten-free
cbdMD CBD Oil Tinctures Products
  • Overall Clinical Score
    99%
    Natural Alternative
  • Score breakdown
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  • Summary

    cbdMD’s CBD oil tinctures are made using only CBD sourced from medical hemp and MCT oil as a carrier oil. Tinctures are offered in orange, mint, natural, and berry flavors. Safe for daily use, the oil tinctures are packaged with a built-in rubber dropper to adjust CBD dosage easily. The packaging is made to be easy to transport and discreet to use.

    Pro's
    Cons's
    •  Plenty of concentrations to choose from for all people with various kinds of needs
    •  Has vegan, organic, and gluten-free ingredients
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  Affordable pricing
    •  cbdMD uses MCT as its carrier oil so individuals who are allergic with coconuts should consider other brand options
  • Features
    Discount pricing available? 15% Off Coupon Code: cbdMD15
    Source
    Source of Hemp
    Kentucky, USA
    Form Oil Tincture
    Ingredients Cannabidiol (CBD), MCT Oil, and Flavoring
    Type
    Type of CBD
    Broad Spectrum
    Extraction
    Extraction Method
    CO2 extraction method
    How to take it Under tongue
    Potency
    Potency - CBD Per Bottle
    300 mg - 7500 mg / 30 ml bottle, 1000 mg - 1500 mg / 60 ml bottle
    Carrier Oil Organic Coconut MCT Oil
    Concentration
    CBD Concentration Per Serving
    30 ml: 300 mg - 10 mg per dropper (1ml), 750 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 50 mg per dropper (1ml), 3000 mg - 100 mg per dropper (1ml), 5000 mg - 166.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 7500 mg - 250 mg per dropper (1ml), 60 ml: 1000 mg - 16.6 mg per dropper (1ml), 1500 mg - 25 mg per dropper (1ml)
    Drug Test Containing less than 0.3% THC, there are still trace amounts
    Flavours Natural, Berry, Orange and Mint
    Price Range 30 ml Bottles: $29.99 for 300 mg, $69.99 for 750 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg, $149.99 for 3000 mg, $239.99 for 5000 mg, $339.99 for 7500 mg 60 ml Bottles: $74.99 for 1000 mg, $99.99 for 1500 mg
    $/mg CBD
    Price ($/mg)
    30 ml - $0.05 - $0.10, 60 ml - $0.06 - $0.07
    Shipping
    Shipping/Time to delivery
    2-5 Business days (via Fedex)
    Lab Tests
    Lab Testing Transparency
    Third Party Lab Tested post formulation for safety and potency, available on website
    Contaminants 100% organic, non-GMO, and vegan-certified
    Allergens Vegan, Gluten free
    Refund policy Within 30 days
    Recommended for CBD users with different needs
    Countries served USA only (all 50 states)
Check Latest Prices

Why People Are Using CBD Oil for Sciatica Pain

Many individuals are discovering the pain-relieving effects(5) of CBD, claiming it can help deal with sciatica pain.

Most of the positive feedback is anecdotal. However, the anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties of CBD have been investigated in various scientific studies(6). These properties may support CBD oil’s narrative as an effective alternative treatment for sciatic nerve pain.

The Mayo Clinic describes sciatica as a painful feeling radiating from the sciatic nerve, which is located along the lower back, through the hips, buttocks, and down each leg(7).

Usually, sciatica affects only one side of the body. It can be mistaken for either back pain, hip pain, or leg pain, which are symptoms of sciatica.

However, the pain is a result of a compressed sciatic nerve, caused by either a herniated disk, a bone spur (hard bumps that form on the spine), or spinal stenosis (narrowing of the spine).

Individuals with jobs that require intense physical labor are prone to developing sciatica pain. Those who sit for long periods without taking breaks for stretching or walking may also develop this medical condition.

Sciatica is troublesome; a simple fit of sneezing or coughing can exacerbate the painful sensation. Severe cases, characterized by intense nerve pain, are common among patients.

CBD cannot cure sciatica since it cannot address the underlying conditions that cause pain in patients.

However, cannabinoids, like CBD, were found to be effective in providing pain relief for neuropathic and inflammatory pain(8). Both types of pain characterize sciatica.

A 2004 research classified sciatic pain to be a mix of neuropathic and other kinds of pain(9). Another study, conducted by the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), found inflammation in the nervous system of patients with chronic sciatica(10).

Neuropathic pain arises from injuries or diseases of the somatosensory system. The somatosensory system is part of the sensory nervous system that deals with touch, pressure, pain, and movement from the joints, muscles, skin, and connective tissues (also referred to as fascia)(11)

Meanwhile, inflammation in the human body occurs when the immune system sends a flurry of antibodies as a response to an injury or infection. 

This action causes small blood vessels to widen, in an attempt to bring more blood to the injured tissue(12), which causes some areas of the body to become red, swollen, and painful.

One significant animal study found that transdermal (on the skin) application of CBD was effective in reducing inflammation and behaviors related to pain in rat subjects with arthritis(13).

However, arthritis is different from sciatica as a medical condition, and no study has yet examined the effectiveness of CBD in managing sciatic pain.

CBD oil may not cure sciatica. However, its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties can be useful in helping alleviate some of the chronic pain experienced by sciatica patients.

How CBD Oil Works for Sciatica Pain

The use of CBD oil may be helpful for sciatica patients in terms of pain management. CBD’s relationship with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may explain how.

The endocannabinoid system is an essential part of the human body. It helps to maintain homeostasis (stability) by regulating various biological processes, including pain, brain, and immune function(14).

The ECS was also found to affect both the central nervous system (CNS) and its processes(15).

Three main components compose the ECS. These are the cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids, and enzymes that help synthesize and break down cannabinoids.

The ECS’ two central cannabinoid receptors are the CB1 and the CB2 receptors.

CB1 receptors exist on the nerve cells of the brain, spinal cord, and tissues.

At the same time, CB2 receptors are abundant in the human body’s immune cells. 

CB2 receptors are also integral to suppressing pain and inflammation(16).

Endocannabinoids, on the other hand, are types of cannabinoids created naturally in the human body. Phytocannabinoids, like CBD, naturally exist in plants.

Cannabinoids act as neurotransmitters. When they bind to either CB1 or CB2 receptors, a specific action can be triggered.

When CBD interacts with either CB1 or CB2 receptors, its therapeutic properties are activated.

This function allows CBD to demonstrate its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory effects(17).

Scientific research found the body’s glutamatergic system influences the effectiveness of some analgesic drugs used in neuropathic pain therapy(18).

The glutamatergic system oversees the discharge of glutamate, a neurotransmitter released by the brain’s nerve cells(19).

Glutamate is essential in many of the body’s physiological functions.

Dysfunctiontional glutamate adversely affects injuries and diseases, examples of which include the development of seizures and brain damage after a stroke(20).

Cannabinoids, like CBD, are known to inhibit the release of glutamate(21) which may help in combating neuropathic pain, a type of pain present in sciatica. 

CBD’s pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties can also help relieve the nerve pain experienced by sciatica patients.

However, CBD oil can only aid in relieving pain and does not address the underlying cause compressing the sciatic nerve.

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is one of the hundreds of phytocannabinoids found in the Cannabis sativa plant.

In contrast to its famous counterpart, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CBD does not contain psychoactive properties that cause its users to experience a euphoric high.

CBD oil extracted from industrial hemp contains less than 0.3% THC. CBD is non-psychoactive, giving it a significant advantage over medical cannabis (also called medical marijuana).

The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for Sciatica

Pros

  • Various health organizations and medical professionals have attested to CBD’s excellent safety profile, with the World Health Organization (WHO) citing that CBD is generally well-tolerated by humans(22).
  • The 2018 Farm Bill gave way to the legal production and selling of industrial hemp products, like CBD and hemp oil, or hemp seed oil. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) still heavily regulates cannabis-based products(23).
  • CBD oil does not require a doctor’s prescription, unlike medical marijuana (medical cannabis), which is also being used as an alternative treatment in providing patients with sciatica pain relief.
  • CBD oil’s rising popularity as a natural option for pain relief has allowed various kinds of CBD products to emerge from the market.
  • Individuals suffering from sciatica nerve pain can choose from many kinds of CBD products that best suit their needs and lifestyle. There are CBD tinctures, oil drops, sprays, and CBD topicals, like creams, balms, and lotions. There are also CBD capsules, edibles, gummies, and vape.

Cons

  • Common side effects from the use of CBD oil may include fatigue, nausea, and irritability(24).
  • Individuals must refrain from using CBD oil when taking other prescription medications, as CBD is documented to interfere with other drugs taken alongside it(25). Taking ibuprofen or aspirin together with CBD, for example, can result in low blood pressure.
  • There is inconclusive evidence to support the use of CBD as an effective treatment for pain relief in patients with sciatica.

How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatment Options for Sciatica

Due to its pain-relieving and inflammatory properties, the use of CBD oil may be an effective alternative treatment option for patients with sciatica pain.

The treatment options medical professionals offer sciatica patients are always within the goal of lessening the pain and inflammation that accompany the medical condition.

Conventional sciatica treatment methods include over-the-counter analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs (like ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen), utilization of ice or hot packs, and physical therapy.

While medical practitioners commonly recommend the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to combat inflammation and pain caused by sciatica, NSAIDs can only relieve nociceptive pain (physical pain)(26).

As previously mentioned, sciatic pain may be a mix of neuropathic (pain from nerve pressure or damage) and other kinds of pain(27).

A 2004 study hypothesized that a treatment combining both antidepressant and anticonvulsant compounds could help treat sciatica pain since both have been proven effective in treating neuropathic pain(28).

CBD oil also has well-documented antidepressant(29) and anticonvulsant(30) properties, which may explain why it is being used as an alternative, natural treatment for sciatic nerve pain.

Also, CBD oil may function in a similar manner to ice or hot packs and anti-inflammatory drugs, which are both used to reduce inflammation and pain caused by a compressed sciatic nerve.

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Sciatica

Patients suffering from sciatic pain have to consider the following factors before settling on a CBD oil product for their medical condition:

  • CBD products are labeled as either full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, or CBD isolates. Most recommend full-spectrum CBD oil since it contains the majority of the active cannabinoids (from terpenes to flavonoids), compounds, minerals, and fatty acids extracted from the hemp plant.
    All these ingredients work together to bring its user the famed entourage effect.
  • Research the exact state provisions of CBD where the product is going to be purchased and used. Although CBD regulation has become lax with the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill, laws may vary depending on the state.
  • Individuals must prioritize buying only from legitimate CBD brands and sellers that offer organic, non-GMO CBD products. The CBD oil used must also be extracted using CO2 technology, which is currently the safest and cleanest way to extract hemp products from the industrial hemp plant.
  • Authorized CBD companies and sellers must also have a certificate of analysis (COA), current good manufacturing practices (CGMPs), and third-party lab testing reports for all its products.
  • Do not forget to check for customer feedback and product reviews, as these are indications of a product’s high quality.

CBD Dosage for Sciatica

A standardized CBD dosage chart or guideline has yet to be approved by the FDA or any regulatory bodies for the matter.

Existing studies cannot point to a specific CBD dose effective for reducing inflammation and pain in humans.

Studies that utilize CBD for pain relief have also administered different CBD doses for its subjects, some of which are animals.

When in doubt, individuals can simply follow the dosage instructions provided in the CBD product to be used.

Different CBD companies and manufacturers have their unique formulation of CBD oil, with differing amounts and potency, depending on the type of product.

Hence, CBD brands and sellers have their own CBD dosage charts and guidelines, with a specific recommended dose for CBD users.

In general, high doses of CBD are well-tolerated in humans(31). However, it is likely safe to start CBD administration with a small dose, gradually increasing until the desired effects are met.

Keep in mind that CBD oil is by no means a proper cure for sciatic nerve pain. Patients are advised to consult with a medical professional first, as CBD can cause negative interactions when used with other drugs.

How to Take CBD Oil for Sciatica

With CBD oil’s sudden rise to popularity, various CBD products have emerged from the market, each with its administration method.

CBD tinctures are perhaps the most popular CBD product among users, including oil drops and sprays.

These products require a user to administer CBD oil sublingually (under the tongue). After waiting for a few moments, users can then swallow the oil.

Flavored options are available for users who do not prefer the natural, earthy taste of CBD oil. Aside from sublingual administration, users can also easily mix CBD oil to their food or drinks.

Meanwhile, CBD topicals, like CBD creams, lotions, balms, and salves allow users to apply CBD oil onto a specific target area.

These topical CBD products are useful for sciatica patients who want to use CBD for pain relief. They can easily apply CBD oil on the parts of their body afflicted with sciatic pain, such as the lower back, hips, buttocks, and legs.

Lastly, CBD capsules, gummies, edibles, and vape are available for users who want to explore other administration methods.

The most practiced dose frequency among CBD users is twice a day, one in the morning and one in the evening.

However, patients with sciatica should first seek the advice of a health professional before initial administration.

Conclusion

The pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD show potential in being an effective pain reliever for medical conditions, like sciatica.

Although CBD’s therapeutic potential is undeniable, research has yet to provide ample evidence to support claims of CBD as an effective treatment for sciatica.

Sciatica patients are still advised to first consult with a medical professional since CBD cannot address the cause of sciatic nerve pain.


  1. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.818; Wade, D. T., Robson, P., House, H., Makela, P., Aram, J. (2003). A Preliminary Controlled Study to Determine Whether Whole-Plant Cannabis Extracts Can Improve Intractable Neurogenic Symptoms. Clin. Rehabil. 17 (1), 21–29. doi: 10.1191/0269215503cr581oa; Russo E. B. (2008). Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain. Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 4(1), 245–259. https://doi.org/10.2147/tcrm.s1928
  2. Baron, R., & Binder, A. (2004). Wie neuropathisch ist die Lumboischialgie? Das Mixed-pain-Konzept [How neuropathic is sciatica? The mixed pain concept]. Der Orthopade, 33(5), 568–575. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00132-004-0645-0
  3. Massachusetts General Hospital. (2018, May 9). Neuroinflammation seen in spinal cord, nerve roots of patients with chronic sciatica: Location of inflammation may determine which patients are successfully treated with steroid injections. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 8, 2020 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/05/180509185451.htm
  4. Russo E. B. op. cit.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. op. cit.; Wade, D. T., Robson, P., House, H., Makela, P., Aram, J. op. cit.; Russo E. B. op. cit.
  7. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (n.d.). Sciatica. Retrieved from: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sciatica/symptoms-causes/syc-20377435#:~:text=Sciatica%20refers%20to%20pain%20that,one%20side%20of%20your%20body.
  8. Russo E. B. op. cit.
  9. Baron, R., & Binder, A. op. cit.
  10. Massachusetts General Hospital. op. cit.
  11. Colloca, L., Ludman, T., Bouhassira, D., Baron, R., Dickenson, A. H., Yarnitsky, D., Freeman, R., Truini, A., Attal, N., Finnerup, N. B., Eccleston, C., Kalso, E., Bennett, D. L., Dworkin, R. H., & Raja, S. N. (2017). Neuropathic pain. Nature reviews. Disease primers, 3, 17002. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrdp.2017.2
  12. InformedHealth.org. (2010, Nov.). What is an inflammation?. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279298/
  13. Hammell, D. C., Zhang, L. P., Ma, F., Abshire, S. M., McIlwrath, S. L., Stinchcomb, A. L., & Westlund, K. N. (2016). Transdermal cannabidiol reduces inflammation and pain-related behaviours in a rat model of arthritis. European journal of pain (London, England), 20(6), 936–948. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejp.818
  14. Pacher, P., Bátkai, S., & Kunos, G. (2006). The endocannabinoid system as an emerging target of pharmacotherapy. Pharmacological reviews, 58(3), 389–462. https://doi.org/10.1124/pr.58.3.2
  15. Mechoulam, R., & Parker, L. A. (2013). The endocannabinoid system and the brain. Annual review of psychology, 64, 21–47. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-113011-143739
  16. Mackie K. (2006). Cannabinoid receptors as therapeutic targets. Annual review of pharmacology and toxicology, 46, 101–122. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.46.120604.141254
  17. Carrier, E. J., Auchampach, J. A., & Hillard, C. J. (2006). Inhibition of an equilibrative nucleoside transporter by cannabidiol: a mechanism of cannabinoid immunosuppression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(20), 7895–7900. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0511232103
  18. Osikowicz M, Mika J, Przewlocka B. The glutamatergic system as a target for neuropathic pain relief. Exp Physiol. 2013;98(2):372‐384. doi:10.1113/expphysiol.2012.069922
  19. Nicolodi, M., Volpe AR. (1998). Sicuteri F. Fibromyalgia and headache. Failure of serotonergic analgesia and N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated neuronal plasticity: Their common clues. Cephalalgia. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9533670
  20. Institute of Medicine (US). (2011). Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders. Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System: Workshop Summary. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK62187/
  21. Nicolodi, M., Volpe AR. op. cit.
  22. World Health Organization. (2018). CANNABIDIOL (CBD) Critical Review Report. Retrieved from: https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/CannabidiolCriticalReview.pdf
  23. US FDA. (2020, March 11). FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd 
  24. Grinspoon, P. (2018). Cannabidiol (CBD) — what we know and what we don’t. Retrieved from: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/cannabidiol-cbd-what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-2018082414476
  25. MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Cannabidiol (CBD). Retrieved from: https://medlineplus.gov/druginfo/natural/1439.html
  26. Baron, R., & Binder, A. op. cit.
  27. Ibid.
  28. Ibid.
  29. de Mello Schier, A. R., de Oliveira Ribeiro, N. P., Coutinho, D. S., Machado, S., Arias-Carrión, O., Crippa, J. A., Zuardi, A. W., Nardi, A. E., & Silva, A. C. (2014). Antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects of cannabidiol: a chemical compound of Cannabis sativa. CNS & neurological disorders drug targets, 13(6), 953–960. https://doi.org/10.2174/1871527313666140612114838
  30. Silvestro, S., Mammana, S., Cavalli, E., Bramanti, P., & Mazzon, E. (2019). Use of Cannabidiol in the Treatment of Epilepsy: Efficacy and Security in Clinical Trials. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(8), 1459. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24081459
  31. Bergamaschi, M. M., Queiroz, R. H., Zuardi, A. W., & Crippa, J. A. (2011). Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent. Current drug safety, 6(4), 237–249. https://doi.org/10.2174/157488611798280924
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Spruce CBD Review

Spruce is a family-owned business based out of Raleigh, North Carolina. The company was founded in 2018 in the belief that modern medicine is broken and that there is a need for alternatives to dangerous pharmaceuticals. Spruce’s lab-grade CBD oil is 100% natural and tested by a third-party lab in...

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Best CBD Oil for High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Why People Are Taking CBD for High Blood Pressure? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), high blood pressure can harden the arteries, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart, leading to heart disease(5). In a 2015 study conducted by researchers from the...

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CBDistillery Review 2020

CBDistillery is a U.S. Hemp Authority-, GMP-, GRAS-, and ISO-certified CBD brand in Colorado. It was created with the belief that everyone should have access to quality products and information on CBD.

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Top 4 Best CBD Oil for Dogs With Cancer

Why Some People are Using CBD for Dogs with Cancer? An article posted by the American Kennel Club (AKC) says that there is no conclusive scientific data on using cannabidiol (CBD) to treat dogs specifically. However, there is anecdotal evidence from dog owners suggesting that CBD can help with neuropathic...

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NuLeaf Naturals Review

Based in Colorado, USA, and founded in 2014, NuLeaf Naturals is one of America’s top pioneering hemp companies. NuLeaf Naturals wellness products are derived from specially bred therapeutic hemp (Cannabis Sativa) plants grown on licensed farms in Colorado. Their hemp CBD plants are 100% organic whole-plant extracts and grown with...

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Best CBD for Neuropathy (Nerve Pain)

As medical cannabis products have become more popular, people are turning to them to treat everything from anxiety to depression to chronic pain. Individuals who are suffering from neuropathy may show interest in trying CBD oil. What Is CBD? CBD comes from a plant that is part of the Cannabaceae...

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SabaiDee Review + Discount Coupon Code for 2020

SabaiDee CBD products are tested both in-house and by independent laboratories to verify the quality of every batch. Their products all come with SabaiDee’s Happiness Guarantee. 

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CBDmd Review

cbdMD produces full-spectrum oils made from all-natural hemp using a CO2 extraction process. This process allows cbdMD to remove practically all traces of THC from its products without affecting the plants’ other beneficial cannabinoids and terpenes. This allows cbdMD to create high-quality products that are set apart from some offerings...

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