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Best CBD Oil for Dog Seizures

Are you looking for alternatives to help manage your dog’s seizures? This article provides what you must know about CBD oil and how this product may work for your furry friend.

Rating
Highlights

Best Overall

Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg


4.8 out of 5
  1. Has coconut oil as carrier which is generally easier on dogs
  2. Has milder taste and no flavorings
  3. Easy to use just sprinkle on dog’s food twice daily

Best Immunity Support for Dogs

Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs


4.1 out of 5
  1. Calming,
  2. Full Spectrum
  3. Contains other natural ingredients to boost immunity

Best Organic

Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil


5 out of 5
  1. Concentrated to approximately 50mg CBD per ml of oil
  2. Great for cats, dogs and other four-legged friends
  3. Can also be used by humans

Best High Potency

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture


5 out of 5
  1. Generous on their options
  2. Different sizes and strengths available for your needs
  3. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating

Best Range

cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs


3.6 out of 5
  1. Uses hemp grown through organic farming methods.
  2. Contains CBD Oil and MCT Oil only
  3. With two yummy flavors

Best CBD Oil for Dog Seizures 2022

  1. Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg Best Overall
  2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs Best Immunity Support for Dogs
  3. Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil Best Organic
  4. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture Best High Potency
  5. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs Best Range


Compare the Best CBD Oil for Dog Seizures

Product Potency Purity Customer Service Type Extraction Transparency Absorption
Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg
4.8 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs
4.1 out of 5

1.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

3.0 out of 5

5.0 out of 5
cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
3.6 out of 5

1.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

3.5 out of 5

4.5 out of 5

5.0 out of 5

4.0 out of 5

Best CBD Oil for Dog Seizures

1. Spruce Dog CBD Oil 750mg
cbdc overall score
4.8
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Same as human lab grade, full spectrum CBD oil  No other flavors
 Easier on Dog's digestion
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Pros
 Same as human lab grade, full spectrum CBD oil
 Easier on Dog's digestion
 Made from 100% organic and natural ingredients
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

Spruce’s dog-friendly CBD has been specially formulated for dogs. Instead of hemp seed oil for the carrier oil, the product contains coconut oil, which is generally easier on the digestion for dogs. The taste is also milder with no flavorings, making it more likely that dogs will eat it with their food.

Using Spruce CBD for dogs is simple. All owners have to do is sprinkle the desired dose on the dog’s food at mealtime once or twice a day. Each dose should consist of about two to three drops per 20 pounds of dog weight.

2. Honest Paws Wellness Oil for Dogs
cbdc overall score
4.1
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Product offering is extensive  Most products were not tested for solvents or mycotoxins
 Products are made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp  Limited information on the company
 30-day money-back guarantee  Available in the US only
 Free shipping for orders over $49.95
 Expedited delivery option is available
Pros
 Product offering is extensive
 Products are made from 100% organic, non-GMO, and locally grown hemp
 30-day money-back guarantee
 Free shipping for orders over $49.95
 Expedited delivery option is available
Cons
 Most products were not tested for solvents or mycotoxins
 Limited information on the company
 Available in the US only
Overview

A calming full-spectrum hemp oil that combines naturally occurring CBD with other ingredients for healthy immunity, calm moods, and a healthy brain.

3. Nuleaf Naturals Pet CBD Oil
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Pure CBD hemp  No other flavors
 All natural
Pros
 Pure CBD hemp
 All natural
Cons
 No other flavors
Overview

CBD for dogs, cats and other four-legged friends! Our product is concentrated to approximately 50mg cannabinoids per milliliter of oil. While this product is designed for pets, it’s great for humans, too.

4. 4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tincture
cbdc overall score
5.0
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Has a wide variety of CBD strengths  A bit expensive
 Free shipping on $100 and up  Incomplete lab test results
Pros
 Has a wide variety of CBD strengths
 Free shipping on $100 and up
Cons
 A bit expensive
 Incomplete lab test results
Overview

4 Corners Cannabis Pet Tinctures are generous on their options since there are different sizes and strengths available for you exact needs. The flavor peanut butter is available perfect for pets who are picky when it comes to eating.

5. cbdMD Pet CBD Oil Tincture for Dogs
cbdc overall score
3.6
CBDC Evaluation Table/Score
Potency
Purity
Customer Service
Type
Extraction
Absorption
Transparency
Pros Cons
 Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans  Low terpene and cannabinoid profile
 No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)
 Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp
Pros
 Same CBD Oil benefits as for humans
 No THC Animal-specific products (dogs, cats, horses)
 Made from premium CBD from non-GMO USA hemp
Cons
 Low terpene and cannabinoid profile
Overview

With nothing but MCT oil combined with CBD oil sourced from U.S. hemp that is grown using organic farming methods, these CBD Oil Tinctures for Dogs can be added to their favorite foods while still providing the same effects that you enjoy. We have two flavors to choose from: Natural and Peanut Butter.

How CBD Helps With Dog Seizures

Studies are ongoing to determine if cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive agent extracted from the Cannabis plant, may be effective in reducing or stopping dog seizures(1).

A 2018 study in Frontiers in Veterinary Science mentioned that CBD may have anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic effects on dogs(2).

CBD plays a role in maintaining the stability of bodily functions by interacting with the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

The ECS contains the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2). CB1 receptors are found primarily in neurons (nerve cells) in the nervous system, while CB2 receptors are mostly present in the immune system.

Studies suggested that CBD may possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic (anti-pain), anticonvulsant, and anti-anxiety properties. The interaction of CBD with the cannabinoid receptors may provide anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic effects on dogs(3).

Currently, CBD products have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat dog seizures.

However, studies are currently ongoing to determine the effects of CBD on dogs with seizures. One study also explored the potential side effects CBD may have on canines.

Dog seizure is a neurological disorder characterized by sudden and uncontrollable disturbances or abnormal motor activity in the dog’s brain(4).

Among dogs, canine epilepsy is a primary cause of recurring seizures. Although most veterinarians are uncertain of what causes these epileptic episodes, some point to genetics(5).

Other causes of dog seizures may include anemia, low blood sugar, brain tumors or trauma, metabolic diseases, or toxin exposure(6). Meningitis is also a life-threatening inflammatory condition of the brain that may cause convulsions among dogs(7).

Epileptic dogs may experience whole-body convulsions, known as grand mal seizures, or localized ones, such as facial tremors or unusual barking(8).

Existing anticonvulsant (anti-seizure) medication for canine epilepsy may cause serious side effects(9). These medications include phenobarbital, diazepam, and potassium bromide.

Even when the medication works, up to 30% of epileptic dogs may continue having seizures(10).

Benefits and Uses of CBD for Dog Seizures

There have been several studies conducted regarding the benefits of CBD oil on dogs. Regarding seizures, clinical trials suggested that CBD may help manage several dog-related illnesses, including canine epilepsy(11).

A clinical trial conducted in 2019 by researchers led by veterinarian neurologist Stephanie McGrath from the Colorado State University assessed the effects of oral CBD on dogs with idiopathic epilepsy(12).

The results stated that CBD may help reduce seizure frequency among dogs.

However, the study also mentioned that additional research is required to determine if a higher dosage effectively reduces seizure activity.

There may be indications that CBD may provide an anti-inflammatory effect on dogs. CBD is able to perform this by engaging the CB1 and CB2 receptors of the ECS to help modulate inflammation(13).  

CBD may also help reduce anxiety among animals(14). This information suggests that CBD may help address anxiety and depression brought by dog seizures.

CBD Dosage for Dog Seizures

The FDA has not yet provided approval for the use of CBD to help manage or treat dog seizures(15). As such, there is currently no standard CBD dosage for dogs.

However, a 2019 study on healthy dogs and cats showed that 2 mg of CBD for every kilogram of the pet’s weight may be a potential dosage without any detrimental effects(16).

Another study in 2018 determined the efficacy of CBD on osteoarthritic dogs. Clinical results suggested that 2 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of CBD administered twice daily may provide comfort and activity among canines with osteoarthritis(17).

A study in the American Journal of Veterinary Research published in 2021 tested the effects of repeated oral CBD administration in healthy adult beagles(18).

The results showed that 1 to 12mg/kg doses of CBD administered to dogs once daily over 28 days were well tolerated.

CBD may have potential side effects on dogs when administered with higher doses, like dryness of mouth, low blood pressure, or drowsiness(19). Although there are no approved dosage guides for dogs, you may consider starting with lower doses.

Dosage may vary depending on the dog’s size and weight. For example, beagles may have a different dosage than retrievers, collies, or German shepherds.

CBD products containing tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be toxic for dogs at specific doses(20). Consult a veterinarian before giving CBD oil products to your pets. Proper consultation may help you determine the correct dosage suitable for your dog.

Under current state and federal laws, veterinarians may not prescribe, administer, dispense, or recommend cannabis-based products for animals(21).

How Dogs With Seizures Can Take CBD Oil

The following are ways to administer CBD products to dogs experiencing canine seizures:

  • CBD oil tinctures are an easy way to give CBD to your dogs. Tinctures are usually administered sublingually or under the tongue. This product type comes with a dropper for more accurate doses.

Sublingual administration allows the CBD extract to enter directly into the bloodstream. This method enables CBD to be absorbed faster.

CBD tinctures usually contain carrier oils such as coconut oil containing medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) or hemp seed oil to dilute the CBD. You may also add tincture drops to your pet’s food.

  • CBD capsules are also another way to administer CBD to your dog. Capsules may take longer to take effect than tinctures since capsules have to pass through the digestive tract and then be absorbed by the body.

An alternative method to get your dog to ingest the capsule is to sprinkle the capsule contents onto the dog food.

  • Pet owners may give CBD dog treats to their dogs as alternative pet food. Some products include biscuits and soft chews and come in different flavors, servings, and doses.
  • CBD topicals applied to the skin may help manage skin issues or joint pain. Topicals for dogs include creams, balms, salves, and massage oils.

How Long Does CBD Take to Help Dog Seizures?

There are currently no studies to determine the specific onset times of the effects of CBD on dogs.

The following are the types of CBD products and their estimated onset times:

  • Edibles like dog treats and soft chews are ingested orally and pass through the digestive tract. These edibles are then broken down and absorbed by the body.

While this ingestion method may take about one to two hours among humans before the CBD takes effect, onset times for dogs may vary due to differences in size and body weight.

  • Capsules ingested orally are also absorbed by the body, similar to edibles. Onset times for dogs may also vary due to size and weight differences.
  • For CBD tinctures taken sublingually, onset times may be faster than oral administration. CBD ingested sublingually bypasses the digestive tract and gets absorbed directly into the bloodstream.
  • CBD topicals like creams or lotions are more effective for joint or skin issues and do not get absorbed into the bloodstream.

One study mentioned that diffusion barriers, such as the skin thickness or absorptivity of the CBD-infused cream, may limit transdermal absorption in dogs(22).

How Long Will CBD Help With Dog Seizures?

CBD products have different types and ingestion methods. These factors may determine the duration of CBD’s effects on the dog’s body.

One study on the safety assessment of CBD on dogs and cats suggested that oral CBD supplements administered every 12 hours have no detrimental effect on biochemistry or complete blood count values(23).

CBD edibles taken orally will pass through the digestive tract and be absorbed by the liver. The effects of CBD edibles may last for about 6 to 12 hours for humans, while the duration may vary for dogs.

CBD tinctures may last for six to eight hours among humans, while effects on dogs may be longer or shorter due to body size and weight differences.

Researchers of a 2018 animal study analyzed the effects and duration of various CBD products on healthy beagles using a 12-hour dose administration(24).

The results showed that 75mg of CBD-infused oil may have an elimination half-life of 199.7 ± 55.9 minutes, while 75mg of CBD micro-encapsulated capsules were at 95.4 ± 29.2 minutes.

Half-life is the time for the quantity of a drug to be reduced to 50%

In the same study, the researchers were unable to determine the elimination half-life of 75mg of CBD transdermal creams. This outcome is due to the lack of an elimination phase in the concentration-time profiles.

Thus, the researchers recommend that future trials involve a longer period of CBD administration, for several months at least. An extended duration may better assess whether CBD concentrations remain stable, decrease, or increase over time.

Additional studies are required to determine the duration of the effects of various CBD products on dogs.

Risks and Side Effects of Using CBD for Dog Seizures

Some pets may experience vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, or lethargy upon taking CBD. Ataxia, which affects balance and coordination, may also occur, especially when CBD is taken in large doses(25).

CBD may inhibit the cytochrome P450 enzyme, which is essential to metabolize many drugs. This property may have minimal clinical significance in many cases. However, this may be crucial when CBD is used to control seizures in dogs.

Some known side effects of CBD intake among dogs include dry mouth, drowsiness, and low blood pressure(26). While these effects may be well tolerated among humans, the pets’ tolerance to these side effects may vary.

One study was conducted in 2020 regarding the safety of increasing CBD doses on dogs. The results of the randomized, placebo-controlled study involving twenty beagles stated that dogs may have good tolerance with CBD dose escalation(27).

The study also mentioned that oil formulations with higher CBD content are safer and more tolerated by dogs than formulations with higher THC content.

To date, studies are ongoing to determine the specific side effects of CBD on dogs experiencing canine seizures.

Pet parents must seek the advice of a veterinarian regarding their dog’s wellness and medical condition before considering purchasing CBD products for their pets.

How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for Dogs

There are several ways for dog owners to administer CBD oil to their pets, including edibles, capsules, tinctures, and topicals. Additionally, consider the following factors when deciding what CBD product to choose:

  • The CO2 extraction method is the most preferred method to pull CBD oil from hemp extract.

The process is more expensive than other extraction methods because of the equipment used. However, CO2 extraction does not have combustible solvents and has no danger of catching fire(28).

CO2 extraction provides optimal benefits from cannabinoids extracted from hemp plants.

  • Ethanol extraction uses ethanol to extract CBD and other compounds from the Cannabis plant.
  • Meanwhile, hydrocarbon extraction uses hydrocarbon solvents like butane or propane to extract CBD. However, hydrocarbons are flammable, and consumption may be harmful if not wholly removed from the CBD extract.
  • Some individuals use home-based extraction methods using solvents. These methods are highly discouraged because of the solvents’ volatile nature. Olive oil extraction may be a safe alternative(29).
  • Reputable brands selling high-quality CBD products must not post unsupported health claims on their websites.
  • Full-spectrum CBD oil products contain all naturally occurring compounds and cannabinoids found in cannabis plants.

In addition to CBD, these compounds include THC, terpenes, flavonoids, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, and other minerals.

These compounds, when combined, provide an entourage effect, where the synergistic presence offers more benefits than the individual elements(30)

Full-spectrum CBD products contain THC that may have adverse effects on your dog(31). Consider refraining from purchasing full-spectrum hemp products to avoid possible intoxication on your pets.

  • Broad-spectrum CBD contains similar cannabinoids as full-spectrum except for THC. You may opt for broad-spectrum products and gain the benefits of the other cannabis compounds even without the THC.
  • CBD isolates are pure CBD extracts without the other compounds present.
  • When choosing a CBD product, check the third-party lab testing analysis.

CBD brands post a certificate of analysis (COA) on their websites showing the CBD product’s actual content. The COA also reveals if the product is free of pesticides, solvents, and other contaminants.

  • Compare the product label information with the COA analysis. Credible CBD products usually display accurate details aligned with the COA results.
  • Consider credible CBD brands with accreditations from the Better Business Bureau (BBB) or certifications from relevant organizations.  

These brands are usually associated with ethical business practices and excellent customer service. Often, these brands offer a money-back guarantee if you are not satisfied with the product.

  • Before purchasing dog CBD oil products, determine if your local and state laws regarding cannabis use allow legal consumption of CBD products for your pets.
  • Consult a veterinarian regarding your dog’s condition before considering purchasing pet CBD products. Vets may not be allowed to prescribe or administer cannabis-based products to animals(32).
  • Different CBD pet oil products have varying effectiveness, dosage, and applications. Some products you may consider for your dog include CBD tinctures, capsules, edibles, and topicals.
  • Some pet owners may prefer gluten-free CBD products sourced from organic hemp plants and composed of non-GMO and natural ingredients with no preservatives.

Some CBD brands may also source from hemp farmers utilizing sustainable farming methods.

Legality of CBD

Many veterinarians in the U.S.A. are unlikely to recommend CBD for dogs because the compound has not been sufficiently proven helpful yet. There may be legal or professional repercussions associated with prescribing or recommending CBD(33).

Additionally, the FDA has not yet approved cannabis use for dogs and cannot guarantee that these products are safe and effective for animals(34).

Pet owners are advised to consult with a veterinarian for alternative options for treating dog seizures.

Product Frequently
Asked Questions

  • How can CBD help with dog seizures?

    Studies suggested that cannabidiol (CBD) may have anticonvulsant and anti-epileptic effects on dogs(35).

    The interaction of CBD with the cannabinoid receptors in the dog’s endocannabinoid system (ECS) may help prevent or modulate seizure activity.

  • What evidence or research exists to say that CBD helps with dog seizures?

    There are several studies regarding the effects of CBD on dogs with seizures. In a 2019 study, the results of a clinical trial on dogs with idiopathic epilepsy stated that CBD may help reduce seizure frequency among dogs(36).

  • Is there any evidence that CBD can make dog seizures worse?

    CBD side effects on dogs include dry mouth, low blood pressure, and drowsiness(37).

    CBD products containing THC may be toxic for dogs(38). Talk to a veterinarian about your dog’s condition and research the THC levels on CBD products before purchasing one for your pet.

    To date, there are ongoing studies to identify the potential side effects of CBD on dogs with canine seizures.

  • Will CBD interact with any current medication for dog seizures?

    CBD inhibits the cytochrome P450 enzyme that is needed to metabolize many drugs. This property may be crucial when using CBD to control dog seizures.

    Seek help from a veterinarian before considering giving CBD together with other medications to your dog.

  • Are there other treatments I should consider alongside CBD to help with dog seizures?

    Some anticonvulsant medications available for canine epilepsy include phenobarbital, diazepam, and potassium bromide. However, these medicines may cause serious side effects(39).

    Consult with a veterinarian before considering these treatment options for your dog’s seizures.

  • What is the dosage for dog seizures?

    There is currently no FDA-approved CBD dosage to help manage or treat dog seizures(40). However, one study suggested that 2mg/kg of CBD may be a viable amount of CBD for dogs(41).

  • Is CBD oil safe for dogs with seizures?

    To date, studies are ongoing to determine the specific side effects of CBD on dogs experiencing canine seizures.

    CBD has no known toxicity levels and is unlikely to overdose dogs as long as the drug is used as instructed. However, CBD products with THC may be toxic for dogs(42).

  • How long do the effects of CBD usually last?

    Researchers of a 2018 animal study mentioned that 75mg of CBD-infused oils may have an elimination half-life of 199.7 ± 55.9 minutes, while 75mg of micro-encapsulated capsules were at 95.4 ± 29.2 minutes(43).

    Half-life is the time for the effects of a drug to be reduced to 50%.


  1. Can CBD Oil Help Dogs With Epilepsy?
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-for-dog-seizures/
  2. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065210/
  3. Ibid.
  4. If Your Dog’s Having a Seizure, Here’s What You Should Do
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/dog-seizures-what-to-do/
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Seizures in dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/seizures-in-dogs/
  8. If Your Dog’s Having a Seizure, Here’s What You Should Do
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/dog-seizures-what-to-do/
  9. Can CBD Oil Help Dogs With Epilepsy?
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-for-dog-seizures/
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy
    https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.254.11.1301
  13. CBD for dogs with arthritis: What does the science actually say?
    https://caninearthritis.org/cbd-for-dogs-with-arthritis-claims/
  14. CBD for animals
    https://anticruelty.org/pet-library/cbd-animals
  15. What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD
    https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis
  16. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832
  17. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30083539/
  18. Randomized, placebo-controlled, 28-day safety and pharmacokinetics evaluation of repeated oral cannabidiol administration in healthy dogs
    https://avmajournals.avma.org/doi/full/10.2460/ajvr.82.5.405
  19. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  20. Can CBD Oil Help Dogs With Epilepsy?
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-for-dog-seizures/
  21. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  22. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038832/
  23. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832
  24. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038832/
  25. FAQs about CBD Use in Pets
    https://www.aspcapro.org/resource/faqs-about-cbd-use-pets
  26. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  27. Preliminary Investigation of the Safety of Escalating Cannabinoid Doses in Healthy Dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7029731/
  28. CBD oil: An introduction
    https://www.projectcbd.org/wellness/cbd-oil-introduction
  29. Ibid.
  30. The Case for the Entourage Effect and Conventional Breeding of Clinical Cannabis: No “Strain,” No Gain
    https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01969
  31. Can CBD Oil Help Dogs With Epilepsy?
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-for-dog-seizures/
  32. How to Talk to Your Veterinarian About CBD Oil for Dogs
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/talk-veterinarian-cbd-oil/
  33. Ibid.
  34. FDA Regulation of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Products, Including Cannabidiol (CBD)
    https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-regulation-cannabis-and-cannabis-derived-products-including-cannabidiol-cbd
  35. Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Clinical Efficacy of Cannabidiol Treatment in Osteoarthritic Dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6065210/
  36. Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of oral cannabidiol administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy
    https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.254.11.1301
  37. CBD Oil for Dogs: What You Need to Know
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-dogs/
  38. CBD for animals
    https://anticruelty.org/pet-library/cbd-animals
  39. Can CBD Oil Help Dogs With Epilepsy?
    https://www.akc.org/expert-advice/health/cbd-oil-for-dog-seizures/
  40. What You Need to Know (And What We’re Working to Find Out) About Products Containing Cannabis or Cannabis-derived Compounds, Including CBD
    https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/what-you-need-know-and-what-were-working-find-out-about-products-containing-cannabis-or-cannabis
  41. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics and Preliminary Safety Assessment with Use of CBD-Rich Hemp Nutraceutical in Healthy Dogs and Cats
    https://www.mdpi.com/2076-2615/9/10/832
  42. CBD for animals
    https://anticruelty.org/pet-library/cbd-animals
  43. Pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol administered by 3 delivery methods at 2 different dosages to healthy dogs
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6038832/
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